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Regulation
EU Fertilisers Regulation revision
Discussions engaged on meat and bone meal ash recycling to fertiliser in Portugal
German sludge and P-recovery ordinance moves forward
Denmark limits farm phosphorus application
ESPP input to REACH regulation evaluation
Circular economy in priorities of EU Commission Work Programme
EU takes Germany to court over Nitrates Directive failures
EU Auditors say Commission fails to address food waste
Ammonium phosphatides considered safe in food
Projects
Impacts of phosphorus recovery on sewage sludge dewatering
UPM and Yara to develop recycled fertilisers
Nurec4org project for phosphorus recycling in organic farming
Ductor nitrogen and phosphorus recovery with Fraunhofer Umsicht
Denmark’s largest biogas plant yet
Science & media
Danone: towards a circular economy in food
Quick reference on phosphorus in the body
UK water industry priorities phosphorus and pharmaceuticals
Increased diet phosphorus improves pig immune system
 

Regulation

EU Fertilisers Regulation revision

The new EU Fertilisers Regulation, which will cover recycled nutrient products, composts, digestates, biostimulants, has been examined by Council (the 28 Member States) and will be discussed in relevant committees of the European Parliament in March – April (Council’s proposals are not yet published). Council apparently wants manures to be sanitised before input into composting or anaerobic digestion (AD): this would be prohibitive, and is not justified where composting or AD ensure sanitisation (animal by-products safety end-point). ESPP has met MEPs from the different European Parliament political groups and concerned Commissions (AGRI agriculture, IMCO internal market, ENVI environment). ESPP’s messages include proposing adding a requirement for traceability for all fertilisers susceptible to contain organic contaminants (from farm producing manure or factory producing by-products through to the farm where the fertiliser is used), facilitating innovation whilst ensuring safety for future inclusion of new recycled products into the regulation annexes, avoiding additional monitoring obligations or trace-element limits if these do not increase product safety, use of safe industry by-products, interactions with REACH (chemical legislation) and clarifying wording to improve regulatory workability and information of farmers. ESPP’s proposal to include traceability for organics is proposed by the ENVI Rapporteur, Elisabetta Gardini (EPP), amendment n°119. Now is the right time to contact your regional/national Members of the European Parliament and to ask for their engagement to support and improve this proposed new regulation, which will be a major step forward for nutrient recycling in Europe.
ESPP key positions and proposed amendments online at www.phosphorusplatform.eu/regulatory For further information see ESPP eNews n°4 and ESPP SCOPE Newsletter n°120. ENVI report and proposed amendments Elisabetta Gardini http://parltrack.euwiki.org/dossier/2016/0084(COD) download source: PE-597.640

Discussions engaged on meat and bone meal ash recycling to fertiliser in Portugal

The company ITS (Industria Transformadora de Subproductos Animais) based in Coruche, Portugal, ensures rendering of slaughterhouse wastes and dead animals (Animal By-Products (ABP) Categories 1 and 2), producing animal fat for biodiesel and meat and bones meal (MBM) for destruction. A rotating-kiln ensures the incineration of the MBM at 850°C, generating 2 500 tonnes/year bottom-ash, as well as thermal energy under the form of steam, which is used for the rendering process. The ash (Meat and Bone Meal Ash MMBA) contains >15% phosphorus (of which most is soluble in NAC neutral ammonium citrate), that is nearly 400 t/y of phosphorus (P), as well as 1% potassium and 0.75% magnesium, with low levels of heavy metals or other contaminants. Discussions are underway with the national authorities to define conditions for use of the MBA as a fertiliser in agriculture. ETSA is also looking for other ways to valorise the MMBA. It is estimated that animal by-products in Europe contain a total of around 310 000 t/y of phosphorus (see SCOPE Newsletter n°122) www.etsa.pt

German sludge and P-recovery ordinance moves forward

On 18th January, the new German new sewage sludge ordinance (AbfKlärV), which will make phosphorus recovery obligatory for most of Germany’s sewage, was validated by the German Cabinet (see ESPP eNews n°6). It is now expected to pass the parliament and Federal Council before summer 2017 and enter into force in January 2018, making phosphorus recovery obligatory for larger sewage works within 12 years (> 100 000 p.e.) or 15 years (> 50 000 p.e.), under certain conditions. P-recovery will thus be required for around 500 sewage works (out of a total of 9 300 in Germany), treating around 2/3 of German sewage. At present, around 26% of German sewage sludge is spread on arable land and this is expected to be cut by half as a consequence of this sewage sludge ordinance (AbfKlärV), and also of the new fertilising ordinance (DüV) which implements the nitrates directive and which will already strongly impact sludge valorisation in Germany next year.
Information provided by Christian Kabbe, KWB. Official press release in German:
http://www.bmub.bund.de/presse/pressemitteilungen/pm/artikel/deutschland-soll-phosphor-aus-klaerschlamm-gewinnen/?tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=82 English translation of German sewage sludge ordinance (EU Notification 2016/514/D (Germany) http://ec.europa.eu/growth/tools-databases/tris/en/search/?trisaction=search.detail&year=2016&num=514

Denmark limits farm phosphorus application

New regulations in Denmark, expected to enter into force in August 2017, would for the first time, specifically limit phosphorus application by farmers (including manure, organic and mineral fertilisers). To date phosphorus has been only indirectly limited by manure spreading limits, based nitrogen content. A general ceiling of 30 - 43 kgP/ha (depending on the type of fertiliser) is expected to be applied across the country, but with a lower limit of 30 kgP in 2018, independent of fertiliser type, in lake catchments concerned by River Basin Management Plans. The Danish Society for Nature Conservation is however critical of the proposal, considering that in some areas and for the first years of implementation it would allow farmers to spread more manure than today. Denmark has some 13 million pigs and around one tenth of Denmark’s fields are today saturated with phosphorus in the top soil. Phosphorus saturation can be documented down to 1m depth some places, with 1-2 tonnes/ha of surplus phosphorus stocked. Media coverage notes that a key challenge is moving the surplus phosphorus from the livestock production region of Jutland (West) to arable areas of Zealand (East Denmark).
“Farming package will increase use of phosphorus”, Ingenioren, 13/1/2017 https://ing.dk/artikel/landbrugspakken-vil-oge-brugen-fosfor-191939 and “Denmark a major culprit in rapid consumption of world phosphorus resources”, Ingenioren, 13/1/2017 https://ing.dk/artikel/danmark-storsynder-vi-opbruger-verdens-fosfor-ressourcer-med-rasende-fart-191934

ESPP input to REACH regulation evaluation

ESPP has submitted input to the EU’s public consultation on the REFIT (assessment of fitness for purpose) of the EU Chemical Regulation 1907/2006 (“REACH”). ESPP considers the Regulation as having improved information about chemicals used in Europe, so contributing to public confidence and safety. ESPP’s specific comments noted that the exemption of digestate from REACH should be confirmed; underlined the importance for the nutrient circular economy of Art. 2(7)d which specifies that sites producing “recovered substances” (e.g. struvite recovered from wastewaters) do not have to register under REACH (subject to certain conditions) but noted that clarification is needed to ensure fair sharing of costs and administration for this disposition; and noted that adaptation of REACH should be considered to facilitate registration of recovered nutrient products covered by the EU Fertilisers Regulation (after revision is completed), subject to ensuring safety. REACH is complex to apply to variable or organic substances, such as many recycled nutrient products, and partly inappropriate because it is intended to address the substance, and not impurities, which will be specified in the Fertilisers Regulation.
ESPP input to EU REACH REFIT consultation www.phosphorusplatform.eu/regulatory and EU consultation page http://ec.europa.eu/growth/tools-databases/newsroom/cf/itemdetail.cfm?item_id=8952

Circular economy in priorities of EU Commission Work Programme

The third annual Work Programme of the Juncker Commission maintains the Circular Economy in its top priorities. The Action Plan for the Circular Economy is intended to deliver on Sustainable Development Goals, with a monitoring framework for the circular economy (Autumn 2017), a legislative proposal on quality requirements for water reuse, a REFIT revision of the Drinking Water Directive and a proposal to address the interactions between chemical, product and waste legislations.
“Juncker Commission presents third annual Work Programme: Delivering a Europe that protects, empowers and defends”, EU Commission press release 26/10/2016 http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-16-3500_en.htm
 

EU takes Germany to court over Nitrates Directive failures

The European Commission has filed a 1500 page suit to the European Court of Justice against Germany for failure to adequately implement the Nitrates Directive. The Commission indicates that nitrate pollution is worsening in Germany’s ground and surface waters and in the Baltic Sea. The court action was announced in April 2016 and confirmed in November. The Commission suit indicates that Germany has failed to update its nitrates Action Programme, despite its 2012 implementation report showing that the programme is inadequate to achieve environmental objectives. The Commission indicates that crop fertilisation requirements allow a surplus of 60 kgN/ha/year, application of up to 230 kgN/ha/year is allowed on some grasslands, that some Land’s manure storage capacity requirements are insufficient and that restrictions on application on sloping land, near watercourses and on frozen land are inadequate.
Extracts of EU Commission suit to European Court of Justice, Executive Summary in German: https://netzfrauen.org/2016/11/08/gefaehrliche-guelle-eu-kom-verklagt-deutschland-wegen-verletzung-der-eu-nitrat-richtlinie-deutschland-hat-ein-nitratproblem/  “EU takes Germany to court over high nitrate levels” EurActiv 7/11/2016 https://www.euractiv.com/section/agriculture-food/news/eu-takes-germany-to-court-over-high-nitrate-levels/ “Water: Commission refers Germany to the Court of Justice of the EU over water pollution caused by nitrates”, EU press release 28/4/2016 http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-16-1453_en.htm

EU Auditors say Commission fails to address food waste

The European Court of Auditors, in a special report on combating food waste, says that the Commission’s “ambition has decreased over time” and that action taken “has been fragmented and intermittent”. The report calls for an “agreed definition of food waste and an agreed baseline, from which to target reductions”, better Commission coordination and development of an action plan, integration of food waste reduction into policies such as the Common Agricultural Policy, and to facilitate donation of food which would otherwise be wasted. The Commission launched in 2016 a food waste Platform to bring together EU bodies, experts, NGOs and food-chain actors. Some 88 million tonnes of food goes to waste annually in the EU, expected to rise to 126 million tonnes by 2030 unless action is taken.
“Speech by Commissioner Vytenis Andriukaitis at the launch meeting of the "EU Platform on Food Losses and Food Waste" 29/11/2016 http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_SPEECH-16-4093_en.htm and EU Court of Auditors Special Report 2016-34 “Combating Food Waste: an opportunity for the EU to improve the resource-efficiency of the food supply chain” http://www.eca.europa.eu/Lists/ECADocuments/SR16_34/SR_FOOD_WASTE_EN.pdf

Ammonium phosphatides considered safe in food

EFSA (European Food Safety Agency) has re-evaluated ammonium phosphatides (E422) for safety as a food additive.  Ammonium phosphatides are molecules consisting of ammonium phosphate with one or two attached mono- or di-glycerides. They are produced by reacting phosphate and ammonium with glycerides, either synthetic or from vegetable oils, and are used as an emulsifier and stabiliser in a range of foods, including chocolate, yoghurts, soft cheese and other dairy products, coffee, cakes and biscuits. EFSA examined a significant number of animal studies of the substance. These indicate that (in rodents) 70-82% is not absorbed (found in faeces) and that most of the absorbed phosphate is incorporated rapidly into bone, muscle or the liver. Studies show low oral toxicity and no cancer, reproductive or developmental effects. EFSA concludes that use as a food additive does not raise safety concerns and that the current ADI (acceptable daily intake) does not require modification.
“Re-evaluation of ammonium phosphatides (E422) as a food additive”, EFSA Scientific Opinion adopted 27/9/2016, EFSA Journal 2016, 14(11), 4597 https://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/4597

Projects

Impacts of phosphorus recovery on sewage sludge dewatering

The US water industry research organisation WERF has launched a 24 month project to investigate how P-recovery, anaerobic sludge digestion and biological phosphorus removal impact sewage sludge dewatering. The organisation indicates that sludge handling can represent 50% of total municipal wastewater treatment costs, with dewatering and polymer use in dewatering representing a significant part of sludge handling costs. WERF note that anaerobic sludge digestion in biological P-removal sewage works can result in significant dewatering problems and high costs, and that there is a lack of agreed knowledge on how P-recovery processes can impact this. The project with Bucknell University will include fundamental laboratory research into flocculation of bio-P digested sludges and field research particularly looking at P-recovery. WERF also has a second project to assess how P-recovery or biological P-removal can be integrated into low-energy, low-carbon nitrogen-removal processes. If you have information on this question, please contact ESPP.
WE&RF 2016: “Unintended Consequences Of Resource Recovery On Overall Plant Performance: Solving The Impacts On Dewaterability Properties (NTRY12R16)”, http://www.werf.org/c/PressReleases/2016/Unintended_Consequences_of_Resource_Recovery_on_Overall_Plant_Performance.aspx and “Water Environment Research Foundation Seeks Proposals for 2 Studies on the Impacts of Resource Recovery on Wastewater Treatment Processes” http://www.werf.org/c/PressReleases/2015/WERF_Seeks_Proposals_for_2_Studies_on_Impacts_of_Resource_Recovery_on_Wastewater_Treatment_Processes.aspx

UPM and Yara to develop recycled fertilisers

UPM (paper, biorefining and forest biomass group with 10 billion €/y turnover and production in 13 countries worldwide) and Yara (Finland phosphate rock mining and fertiliser production group) have obtained funding for 2017-2018 from Raki2, the Finland Environment Ministry nutrient recycling programme, to develop an agricultural fertiliser product from pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment sludge and sludge incineration ash. UPM’s different factories produce around 400 000 t/y of sludge including both primary sludges with a high fibre content and secondary sludges consisting mainly of bacterial biomass. The project aims to develop fertiliser and soil improver products with nutrient availability corresponding to crop needs, including balancing nutrients by combining with mineral fertilisers, so reducing risks of soil nutrient leaching and losses.
“Enhancing the utilisation degree of sludge by improving fuel value and mapping out new applications”, UPM stakeholder magazine Biofore 10/11/2016 https://www.upmbiofore.com/enhancing-the-utilisation-degree-of-sludge-by-improving-fuel-value-and-mapping-out-new-applications/ and UPM press release 10/11/2016 “UPM and Yara to co-develop recycled fertilisers” http://www.upm.com/About-us/Newsroom/Releases/Pages/UPM-and-Yara-to-co-develop-recycled-fertilisers-001-Thu-10-Nov-2016-10-03.aspx

Nurec4org project for phosphorus recycling in organic farming

The 2-year Nurec4org project launched in 2017 will support the uptake of recycled nutrient products in organic farming in Germany. It is led by Kompetenzzentrum Wasser Berlin (KWB) and Bioland (Germany’s biggest organic farmers’ association) and funded by DBU, Germany’s largest environmental foundation. Actions will include studying the market potential for recycled phosphorus products in organic farming and potential supply availability, looking at acceptance criteria for organic farmers and consumers, testing agronomic value and evaluation environment, health and life cycle factors. The objective is to provide both evidence and stakeholder consensus to support regulatory acceptance of recycled phosphates in organic agriculture.
 Contact:

Ductor nitrogen and phosphorus recovery with Fraunhofer Umsicht

A pilot installation (80 m3 fermenter) has started operation in Tuorla, Finland, and will treat 1 400 t/y of poultry manure. A 10 000 t/y chicken manure input installation started is planned in Haren, Germany, in 2016 (see ESPP eNews n°3). The Ductor technology recovers up to 60% of nitrogen (by ammonia stripping and then ammonium sulphate production) upstream of anaerobic digestion (biogas production). The digestate can be processed to a solid organic phosphate fertiliser from the digestate. Fraunhofer Umsicht will work with Ductor to evaluate the performance of the Ductor technology, including the impact on biogas production.
“Revolutionary technology by Ductor® commissioned in Tuorla, Finland”, 20/12/2016 http://www.ductor.com/revolutionary-technology-ductor-commissioned-tuorla-finland/

Denmark’s largest biogas plant yet

The biogas plant to be built near Koskro, Southern Jutland, Denmark’s most intensive livestock production region, will take over 700 000 t/y of input organic wastes, mainly cattle manure, and produce 22 million m3/y of biogas. The project brings together the Nature Energy biogas company and Sydvestjysk, a cooperative of around 100 famers. The plant benefits from exemplary architectural and landscaping design by Gottlieb Palludan.
EBA (European Biogas Association) news http://european-biogas.eu/2016/11/28/denmark-countries-largest-biogas-plant-under-construction/ and “Nature Energy og Sydvestjysk Biogas klar til rekordstort biogasanlæg ved Korskro” 11/11/2016 https://www.natureenergy.dk/corporate/presse/nyheder/spadestik_korskro

Science & media

Danone: towards a circular economy in food

Global food company, Danone, has announced a three-year partnership with the Ellen MacArthur Foundation to embed circular economy principles inside the company and to promote them widely. Danone aims for systemic change to preserve natural resources and to move to a more circular value chain. In 2016, Danone was awarded the Environment Top Performance prize by the ESG (Environmental and Social Governance) ratings agency Vigeo, top of 1 300 companies assessed. The company already has circular economy projects addressing nutrients, such as recycling acid whey by-products from yoghurt production to animal feeds, fertiliser and energy.
“Toward a circular economy in food”, Emmanuel Faber, CEO of Danone http://downtoearth.danone.com/2016/02/29/toward-a-circular-economy-in-food/

Quick reference on phosphorus in the body

A convenient summary of phosphorus biology data is provided in two pages of text plus tables, including a summary of biological functions of phosphorus, data on body P uptake and regulation, an overview of hyper- and hypophosphatemia and useful conversion indicators (mg/l – mmol – mEq/l). Note that this is a veterinary journal and some of the data (e.g. normal serum P levels) for dogs and cats may not be the same for humans.
“A Quick Reference on Phosphorus”, A. Allen-Durrance, Vet Clin Small Anim, 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2016.09.003

UK water industry priorities phosphorus and pharmaceuticals

CIP2, the UK water industry’s second Chemicals Investigation Programme (coordinated by UKWIR) is a major research and monitoring investment. The project is running from 2015 to 2020 with an estimated cost of UK£140 million for chemicals, with a priority on pharmaceuticals, and UK£50 million for phosphates. Some 600 sewage works are being sampled for 74 chemicals. AquaStrategy reports that interim results from 160 sites show a Water Framework Directive compliance risk at ≥90% of sites for five substances (three fluorinated / PFOS chemicals1, PAH2 and phosphorus as SRP3). Twenty of the 74 chemicals being studied are pharmaceuticals4. For a number of pharmaceuticals5, the interim results suggest that levels in sewage works discharge water would pose a potential risk in rivers. CIP2 also includes testing nearly 20 different technologies to reduce phosphorus discharges and 10 technologies to remove pharmaceuticals, a challenge being to find solutions which eliminate the pharmaceutical molecule rather than simply adsorbing it. AquaStrategy note that Switzerland has moved forward on pharmaceutical treatment in sewage works through a 9 CHF/year/person tax. In January 2017, a coalition of 14 NGOs called on the European Commission to take action to reduce pharmaceutical pollution of water, as is required by Directive 2013/39/EU (priority substances in water), which fixed a deadline of September 2015, deadline which has been missed. The NGO’s letter also points to pharmaceuticals in manure and soil.
1: perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and perfluorooctanoic acid. 2: indicator benzo(a)pyrene. 3: soluble reactive phosphorus. 4: including the 6 pharmaceuticals which are on the Water Framework Directive priority substance ‘Watch List’: diclofenac, estradiol (E2), ethinyl estradiol (EE2), erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin. 5: diclofenac, propranolol, clarithromycin, erythromycin, EE2, rantidine and azithromycin. “Early insights from the UK's groundbreaking sewage assessment”, AquaStrategy October 2016 https://www.aquastrategy.com/article/early-insights-uks-groundbreaking-sewage-assessment “The European Commission must fulfil their obligation to reduce pharmaceutical pollution”, NGOs’ position and letter Health Care Without Harm 19/1/2017 https://noharm-europe.org/articles/press-release/europe/european-commission-must-fulfil-their-obligation-reduce-pharmaceutical

Increased diet phosphorus improves pig immune system

A PhD thesis looks at the effects of dietary calcium phosphate levels and of fermentables on the immune system and on gut bacteria of pigs. Following a literature study, two consecutive full scale tests were carried out on 31 pigs fed for 9 weeks with a corn-soybean (higher level of fermentables) then a corn-pea diet, with for each test, groups of high and low calcium phosphate (4 or 7 %Pdm). Higher calcium phosphate and higher fermentables both led to healthier gut and lower potentially harmful gut bacteria. The higher calcium phosphate diets generally showed higher levels of positive immune function indicators. Further research is recommended concerning variations of phosphorus availability (digestibility) and the formation of different inositol phosphates.
“Impact of dietary phosphorus and fermentable substrates on the immune system and the intestinal microbiota of the pig”, C. Heyer, PhD in Agricultural Science, University of Hohenheim Germany, 2016 http://opus.uni-hohenheim.de/volltexte/2016/1301/pdf/Dissertation_Charlotte_Heyer.pdf#page=27
 

Events

13-15 March 2017, Tampa, Florida, Phosphates 2017 http://www.crugroup.com/events/phosphates/
 
Save the date 11 or 12 April, Paris, COMIFER / ESPP P recycling in agriculture (in French)

8-10 May 2017, Ben Guérir, Morocco, SYMPHOS - Innovation and Technology in the Phosphate Industry http://www.symphos.com/index.php

 
19 May 2017, Washington DC, North America Sustainable Phosphorus Alliance (SPA) stakeholder meeting https://sustainablep.asu.edu/about

12-14 June 2017, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, WEF Nutrient Symposium http://www.wef.org/Nutrients/ 

21-23 June 2017, Belfast, Ireland sustainable P meeting https://phosphorusie.wordpress.com/

3-5 July 2017, Paris, PBSi 2017 P, B & Si http://premc.org/conferences/pbsi-phosphorus-boron-silicon/

4-5 July, Manchester, UK, BIG Phosphorus conference http://www.aquaenviro.co.uk/events/conferences/

5-9 August, New York, IWA Resource Recovery conference www.irrc2017.org  
 

 


Copyright © 2017 European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform, All rights reserved.

Newsletter about nutrient stewardship - European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform (ESPP).

Please subscribe www.phosphorusplatform.eu/Subscribe 
Link to www.phosphorusplatform.eu/eNews007
Download as PDF


Regulation
EU Fertilisers Regulation revision
Discussions engaged on meat and bone meal ash recycling to fertiliser in Portugal
German sludge and P-recovery ordinance moves forward
Denmark limits farm phosphorus application
ESPP input to REACH regulation evaluation
Circular economy in priorities of EU Commission Work Programme
EU takes Germany to court over Nitrates Directive failures
EU Auditors say Commission fails to address food waste
Ammonium phosphatides considered safe in food
Projects
Impacts of phosphorus recovery on sewage sludge dewatering
UPM and Yara to develop recycled fertilisers
Nurec4org project for phosphorus recycling in organic farming
Ductor nitrogen and phosphorus recovery with Fraunhofer Umsicht
Denmark’s largest biogas plant yet
Science & media
Danone: towards a circular economy in food
Quick reference on phosphorus in the body
UK water industry priorities phosphorus and pharmaceuticals
Increased diet phosphorus improves pig immune system
 

ESPP has submitted input to the EU’s public consultation on the REFIT (assessment of fitness for purpose) of the EU Chemical Regulation 1907/2006 (“REACH”). ESPP considers the Regulation as having improved information about chemicals used in Europe, so contributing to public confidence and safety. ESPP’s specific comments noted that the exemption of digestate from REACH should be confirmed; underlined the importance for the nutrient circular economy of Art. 2(7)d which specifies that sites producing “recovered substances” (e.g. struvite recovered from wastewaters) do not have to register under REACH (subject to certain conditions) but noted that clarification is needed to ensure fair sharing of costs and administration for this disposition; and noted that adaptation of REACH should be considered to facilitate registration of recovered nutrient products covered by the EU Fertilisers Regulation (after revision is completed), subject to ensuring safety. REACH is complex to apply to variable or organic substances, such as many recycled nutrient products, and partly inappropriate because it is intended to address the substance, and not impurities, which will be specified in the Fertilisers Regulation.

Following the legislative developments in Switzerland and Germany, Austria is now also opting for madatory P recovery from municipal sewage sludge. The draft Federal Waste Plan 2017 (Bundes-Abfallwirtschaftsplan) includes a ban of direct land application or composting for sewage sludge generated at Wastewater Treatment Plants with capacities of 20,000 p.e. or above within a transition phase of 10 yeras. (see chapter 7.5 in the waste plan part 1, link below). Alternatively, these WWTP will have to recover the P from sludge onsite targeting P contents below 20 g P / kg dry solids or have to deliver their sludge to sludge mono-incinerators. The P is then to be reovered from the sewage sludge ashes obtained. This regulation will cover 90% of the P contained in the Austrian municipal wastewater.

Link to Austrian Ministry of the Environment and draft waste plan:
https://www.bmlfuw.gv.at/greentec/bundes-abfallwirtschaftsplan/BAWP2017.html

On January 18th, the new sewage sludge ordinance has passed the German cabinet. It is supposed to pass the parliament and Federal Council of Germany before summer. Intended dates are 31 March for the parliament and 12 May for the council. After more than 10 years of revision and heated debates, the new draft of the German sewage sludge ordinance was sent by the Federal Ministry of Environment (BMUB) to the European Commission (EC) for notification at September 26th 2016. The notification to EC is a typical procedure for new Member State regulations according to directive 2015/1535/EU. The EC has approved without remarks by 27 Dec 2016. The content cannot be changed afterwards except for minor adaptions.

Once approved by both chambers, the new sewage sludge ordinance may enter into force by 1st January 2018. This step will make phosphorus (P) recovery from sewage sludge obligatory for all German wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) larger than 50,000 person equivalents (p.e.), equal to ~500 WWTP out of ~9300 WWTP. They will have to recover the phosphorus if the sludge contains more than 2% phosphorus /DS (dry solids) or have to incinerate the sludge in mono-incinerators. Land application of sludge will only be allowed for WWTP < 50,000 p.e. These ~500 WWTP represent roughly 66% of the total phosphorus removed from German wastewater and transferred into the sludge.

The WWTP above 100,000 p.e. will have to fulfill the new phosphorus recovery requirements by 2029, after a 12 years transition period. The WWTP of 50,000 to 100,000 p.e. get three additional years for implementation. All effected WWTP have to develop phosphorus recovery concepts by 2023.

Currently, 26% of sewage sludge is spread on arable land. This fraction is expected to half as a consequence of the new fertilising ordinance (DüV) and sewage sludge ordinance (AbfKlärV) entering into force. The fertilising ordinance is the German implementation of the nitrates directive and will strongly affect sludge disposal and valorisation in Germany already next year.

Official press release in German:
http://www.bmub.bund.de/presse/pressemitteilungen/pm/artikel/deutschland-soll-phosphor-aus-klaerschlamm-gewinnen/?tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=82

Newsletter about nutrient stewardship - European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform (ESPP).

Please subscribe www.phosphorusplatform.eu/Subscribe 
Link to www.phosphorusplatform.eu/eNews006
Download as PDF

Success story
Thermal hydrolysis biogas and fertiliser from food waste, Oslo
Regulation and policy
EU to further restrict dental mercury
Circular Economy standard proposed
Netherlands approves Circular Economy 2050 strategy
France, Spain face European Court actions for failure to treat sewage
German proposed sludge ordinance in English
Germany ammonia emissions taken to court
Policy for the circular economy
Germany UBA proposes reduced VAT on resource efficient products
Regulatory barriers to circular economy wealth creation
Report confirms potential of tax shift from labour to consumption
Media
ICL Fertilisers: the world must consume less raw materials
Aqua Strategy: P recovery update
Toilet Board Coalition: Circular Economy could accelerate global sanitation
Science
Healthy diet, diet P and food sustainability
Phosphorus losses from mains water leakages
Phosphorus recovery potential, Sofia, Bulgaria
Risk assessment and fertiliser regulations
Cost assessment of struvite recovery from digestate
 

The previous European Commissioner for Science and Research and then for the Environment,

Janez Potočnik, has joined the Board of the European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform

(ESPP). Mr Potočnik has also previously been a Minister in Slovenia, and is currently Co-Chair of

UNEP International Resource Panel. He will act as an ambassador for sustainable phosphorus

resource management, particularly to national and regional governments, and to the food

industry.

 

ESPP’s General Assembly (1/12/2016, Brussels) elected the following Board:

• President: Ludwig Hermann (Outotec, a global leader in minerals and metals processing technology)

• Treasurer: Bengt Hansen (Kemira, a water treatment chemicals company)

• Secretary : Anders Nättorp (FHNW University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland)

Herman Walthaus (Netherlands Government)

Christian Kabbe (DPP German Phosphorus Platform)

Fertilizers Europe, the European fertiliser industry federation

Janez Potočnik (proposed by BSAG Baltic Sea Action Group)

 

The General Assembly fixed the following priority actions for the Platform for 2017

- The revision of the EU Fertilisers Regulation, to cover recycled nutrient products, in

particular adding struvite, biochars and ash-based products (currently not covered) and

enabling traceability to ensure safety and confidence in recycled products susceptible to

contain organic contaminants

- Refining justification for maintaining phosphorus / phosphate rock in the EU Critical Raw

Materials list

- Developing standards for secondary nutrient raw materials, to accompany recycling

- Sustainable manure management across Europe

 

Innovation in the chemicals industry

The 2016 General Assembly was followed by a thematic meeting looking at innovation and

sustainability in industrial uses of phosphorus. Sixty participants, mainly from industry, but also

from R&D and the European Commission, explored the wide range of industries in which

phosphorus chemicals are essential, including fire safety, energy storage, electronics, medical

applications, catalysts and lubricants. A number of companies, including Clariant, ICL, Magpie

Polymers, Italmatch, Prayon, ProPHOS and Remondis, presented their actions to make

phosphorus chemistry processes more sustainable.

 

Success stories presented include recycling of phosphorus (from sewage sludge, from spent

fire extinguishers), and the development of phosphorus chemicals with improved health, safety

and sustainability profiles.

 

Summary is online in SCOPE Newsletter n° 123 and slides at:
http://www.phosphorusplatform.eu/P-in-industry

The presentations of the ESPP conference on Phosphorus stewardship in industrial applications (01-12-2016) are now online under Downloads and below. The report of the conference is published as a SCOPE newsletter No. 123 article "Phosphorus in the chemicals industry".

The ESPP General Assembly 2016 was followed by a thematic meeting looking at innovation and sustainability in industrial uses of phosphorus. 60 participants, mainly from industry, but also from R&D and the European Commission, explored the wide range of industries in which phosphorus chemicals are essential, including fire safety, energy storage, electronics, medical applications, catalysts, lubricants. Several companies including Clariant, ICL, Magpie Polymers, Italmatch, Prayon, ProPHOS and Remondis, presented company actions to make phosphorus chemistry processes more sustainable. For example, their success stories cover the recycling of phosphorus from sewage sludge and from spent fire extinguishers, and to develop phosphorus chemicals with improved health, safety and sustainability profiles.

Opening: Janez Potocnik - Co-chair of the UNEP International Resource Panel and previous EU Environment Commissioner
Phosphorus: global resources perspective
Willem Schipper – Willem Schipper Consulting
Phosphorus in industry and society
Carl Szöcs – Prayon
Phosphorus recycling initiatives in a multi-sector P company
Chris Slootweg - SUSPHOS network
Circular phosphorus chemistry and knowledge transfer from one sector to another (chemistry, agriculture, industry)
Steve van Zutphen - Magpie Polymers
Metal Scavenging: using low-value phosphorus materials to make metal refining more sustainable
Alexander Maurer - ICL Fertilizers
The RECOPHOS-Process P4 from Sewage Sludge Ashes
Andreas Rak and Martin Lebek - Remondis
Clean technology for P-recycling to phosphoric acid: REMONDIS TetraPhos®
Marco Michelotti and William Grandi - ProPHOS Chemicals
Innovative solution for phosphate recovery from exhausted extinguishing powders (PhoSave Horizon2020 project)
Wolfgang Wanzke – sustainability manager Clariant
Sustainability in the Phosphorus Value Chain: P-based flame retardants and fire retarded plastics
Maria Cristina Pasi - Italmatch Chemicals, Coordinator of the TRIALKYL LIFE project
Reducing the impact of P chemistry
Tomas Turecki – European Commission DG RTD
Industry innovation and phosphorus sustainability in FP7 & H2020
Solon Mias - EU Executive Agency for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (EASME)
LIFE Environment Water

Report and presentations are now online for the ESPP workshop Pharmaceuticals in sewage biosolids (27/10/2016). The main workshop conclusions are:

  • Incineration of sewage sludge can be an appropriate solution depending on local conditions (e.g. contaminated sludge, lack of agricultural space for spreading …) but is lower down the recycling hierarchy (energy “recovery” not recycling). Even if phosphorus is recovered from ash (to produce fertiliser or for industry applications), organic carbon, nitrogen, potassium, sulphur and micro-nutrients are lost.
  • Concerns about sludge contaminants must be taken seriously and addressed both by developing data and information to support risk assessments, and by taking upstream actions wherever possible to reduce contamination of sewage sludge. For industrial chemicals and consumer chemicals, this is possible by actions targeting users and households (reduce discharge to sewers), but for pharmaceuticals it is much more difficult.
  • Public exposure risk to organic contaminants via sewage sludge should be put into context of exposure from other routes (both the same and other organic contaminants via direct contact and in household dust, air, water). However, this does not absolve the need to address sewage sludge use in agriculture in order to inform farmers, the food industry, consumers and decision makers.
  • Veterinary pharmaceuticals and hormones are also present at significant levels in manures, and this should also be addressed, both by reductions at source where possible, and by monitoring and treatment where manure nutrients are recycled.
  • There still a need for more data regarding fate of organic contaminants, including pharmaceuticals in sewage sludge. There is more data on heavy metals, and more data on organic contaminants in water (sewage works discharge, rivers, drinking water) than in biosolids. The question is multi-faceted: contaminants in biosolids, fate in sewage treatment and in sludge treatment processes, in soils, in crops, both short and medium term presence and impacts.
  • Pharmaceuticals and other organic chemicals in sewage sludge are varied and complex, and cannot be considered as a single issue. Of the wide number of molecules, new pharmaceuticals and chemicals, breakdown products, which to monitor? Further data and understanding is needed to try to identify different families of substances which have similar behaviour, but without over-simplifying.
  • Pharmaceuticals and hormones are important challenges, because of the inherent obstacles to upstream reductions, both in sewage sludge and in animal manures.
  • More immediately however, industrial and household chemicals require monitoring and action, in particular:
    • PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate) and other perfluorinated chemicals, e.g. from Teflon
    • triclosan and triclocarban
    • brominated flame retardants and substitute chemicals
    • dioxins
    • PAH (poly aromatic hydrocarbons)
  • Composting is generally effective for removing many, but not all pharmaceuticals. Female hormones however are largely not degraded.
  • Removal of organic contaminants in sewage treatment systems is very variable and difficult to predict, depending on contaminant molecule chemistry, sludge properties, dewatering, treatment conditions.
  • Anaerobic digestion can break down some pharmaceuticals, but further work is needed to better understand how to improve this, including looking at sludge disintegration upstream of digesters (e.g. Cambi, Haarslev, Biothely). Further work is needed on degradation metabolites to verify if these pose issues.
  • There is potential to develop new sludge treatment process chains in order to improve pharmaceuticals removal, e.g. treatments upstream of anaerobic digestion, or modification of conditions in digesters and in the sewage works biological treatment cycles
  • Female hormones are often not degraded in sludge treatment, but this may be not of environmental or health significance. Manures either spread or going directly to soils from animals in the field often contains significant levels of such hormones.
  • Antibiotic resistance is a globally important health issue, and should be better studied for sewage biosolids application. Knowledge shows that soils can naturally adapt, because soil organisms naturally release antibiotics, so that antibiotic resistance appearing after sludge application seems to be only temporary.
  • Several studies confirm that movement of organic contaminants to groundwater is very low from sewage sludge land application. This is unsurprising, as the contaminants found in sludges are those which tend to partition to solids, and not to water.
  • Data is needed to develop robust risk assessments of agricultural use of sewage biosolids, and also of manures, taking into account fate of and possible impacts of pharmaceuticals in sewage treatment processes, sludge treatment, in soil and possibly in crops and for grazing livestock. This cannot be feasibly done for the large number of pharmaceutical molecules and other organic contaminants, so screening is needed to identify priority substances.

Newsletter about nutrient stewardship - European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform (ESPP).

Please subscribe www.phosphorusplatform.eu/Subscribe 
Link to www.phosphorusplatform.eu/eNews005
Download as PDF

Success stories
- NuReSys Appeldoorn struvite plant now operational
- Robobank selects nutrient recycling innovators

Policy and regulation
- EU Commission call for information on struvite – biochar – ashes
- German sludge P-recycling ordinance notified to Europe
- EESC Opinion on Fertilisers Regulation
- Manure management in livestock intensive regions
- Nordic Phosphorus Network announced by Nordic Council of Ministers
- European farmers’ federation position on Fertilisers Regulation
- France Nitrates Directive programme approved by Brussels

Funding opportunities
- Two new Horizon 2020 research calls on raw materials
Science & media
- Update of phosphorus Dietary Reference Intake not justified
- Calcium phosphate nano particles inhibit cancer cells
- Comparing manure management to reducing livestock numbers
- Improving digestate fertiliser performance by injection
- No risk bacterial expected from recovered struvite


Phosphorus stewardship in the chemicals industry
and new industrial applications
Thursday 1st December, Brussels

ESPP (European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform) General Assembly and thematic meeting within the First EU Raw Materials Week (EU Raw materials information & brokerage event 30th November)
Register:
Programme: www.phosphorusplatform.eu

European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform (ESPP) General Assembly focussing on Phosphorus stewardship in industrial applications will be held on Thursday 1st December, Brussels within the First EU Raw Materials Week. Success stories and innovation in P stewardship in industry will be presented and areas for possible research or value-chain collaboration will be identified.

The general programme of the day is as follows, more details in the programme:
8h30 – 10h30    ESPP General Assembly (open to non-members): accounts, election of Board, actions underway and action plan priorities for 2017
10h30   Coffee break
11h00 -17h30    Phosphorus stewardship in industrial applications

Participants: ESPP members and network - waste, water, chemicals, fertiliser industries, policy makers, knowledge centres.
To participate: registration obligatory

After more than 10 years of revision, the new draft of the German sewage sludge ordinance (AbfKlärV), which will make phosphorus recovery obligatory for most of Germany’s sewage, has been sent by the Federal Ministry of Environment (BMUB) to the European Commission for notification at September 26th 2016. This notification is the standard procedure for new member state regulations (directive 2015/1535/EU). Once approved by EC, the content cannot be changed afterwards except for minor adaptions. During notification, there is a three months stand-still agreement.

The next steps after notification will be cabinet resolution within the German Federal government in January 2017 and presentation for enactment to the Federal Council of Germany and the Parliament in spring 2017. The new ordinance may thus enter into force with a date 1st January 2018.

The ordinance will make phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge obligatory for all German sewage works larger than 50,000 person equivalents (p.e.), that is, around 500 out of a total of c. 9 300 sewage works in Germany. These 500 larger sewage works represent around 2/3 of the total phosphorus removed from German wastewater and transferred into sludge.

For these larger sewage works, phosphorus recovery will be obligatory if the sludge contains more than 2% phosphorus (dry solids), either by P-recovery from the sludge or by mono-incineration and recovery from sewage sludge incineration ash. If P < 2%, then co-incineration will be authorized. Land application of sludge will only be allowed for sewage works < 50,000 p.e. Currently 29% of German sewage sludge is spread on farmland, and will have to respect the quality criteria of the new German fertilizing ordinance (DüV). The entry into force of these two new ordinances (AbfKlärV and DüV). Is expected to be cut by half the amount of sewage sludge going to farmland.

The new fertilizing ordinance is the German implementation of the EU Nitrates Directive and will already dramatically impact sewage sludge use in Germany in 2017.

Article by Christian Kabbe (former P-REX).
See also: http://www.bmub.bund.de/themen/wasser-abfall-boden/abfallwirtschaft/wasser-abfallwirtschaft-download/artikel/abfklaerv-klaerschlammverordnung

After compost, PVC and non-ferrous metals from bottom ash, struvite will be the fourth secondary resource to be addressed within the International Green Deal North Sea Resources Roundabout (NSRR). Struvite is a specific mineral form of magnesium ammonium phosphate recovered from waste water. A working group of French and Dutch public and private sector experts has its first meeting in the Dutch embassy in Paris on October 7. The case, initiated by Suez, Veolia, Reststoffenunie and Waternet, will focused on the perceived barriers relating to the use of struvite in crystal form. It will specifically explore ways to facilitate the export of struvite recovered from municipal wastewater plants as a raw material for the purpose of producing fertiliser. The initiators hope that this case will be a first step towards creating a European market for struvite.

Full press release here.
More details and a video about the Green Deal North Sea Resources Roundabout.
Parlimament Magezine article about the Green Deal.

Newsletter about nutrient stewardship - European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform (ESPP).

Please subscribe www.phosphorusplatform.eu/Subscribe 
Link to www.phosphorusplatform.eu/eNews004
Download as PDF

Summary:
Success stories
NuReSys struvite recovery technology chosen at Braunschweig, Germany.
NuReSys Appeldoorn struvite plant now operational
Phosphorus recycling from expired fire extinguishers
Outotec and Thermo-Systems partner for nutrient recycling

Opportunities
€ 400 million for raw materials in Horizon 2020
Policy
EU Fertilisers Regulation enters Parliament – Member State discussion
Standard for land use of sewage sludge out for consultation
UN Environment Assembly recognises global nutrient challenges
Restriction on ammonium salts in insulation materials
ECHA consultation on toxicity testing of monosodium phosphate
EU Organic farming committee positive opinion on recovered struvite and calcined phosphates
CEN considers standardisation needs for secondary raw materials

Science and media
Phosphate fertiliser prices falling
Evaluation of manure management in Europe
Technology reviews: nutrient recovery from digestate
EFSA considers data on urea user risks
Agriculture and air pollution
Dietary choices key to reducing phosphorus footprint
Innovative solutions to food waste

Events

 

ESPP workshop “Pharmaceuticals and organic chemicals in sewage biosolids: questions for recycling”: Malmö (near Copenhagen) 27th October 8h00 – 12h00, with the Nordic Phosphorus Conference, 27 - 28 October. Programme www.phosphorusplatform.eu

ESPP General Assembly: phosphorus innovation and stewardship in the chemicals industry: Brussels, 1st December www.phosphorusplatform.eu
For full list of events, see below the news section of this email and on www.phosphorusplatform.eu

The European Economic and Social Committee has adopted its ‘Opinion’ on the EU Fertilisers Regulation revision. EESC supports the objective of extending the existing regulation from only mineral fertilisers (at present) to cover organic and waste based fertilisers, subject to ensuring environmental protection, underlining that recycled fertilisers “may in the future constitute an important part of an integrated circular economy” (recalling the EESC Opinion on the Circular Economy jobs and SMEs, 2014). The need to clarify definitions of a “secondary raw material”, waste, by-products, end-of-waste are underlined, pointing to the contradictions in the current text between application to PFCs and CMCs [$4.2 of EESC Opinion]. EESC wants systems of control, labelling (present in the proposed text) and [$1.3] traceability (not present). EESC underlines [$1.9, $4.5] that municipal waste water has potential and value as a raw material for organic fertiliser – whereas this is excluded in the current regulation proposal. EESC also notes [$4.8] the need to exempt from REACH recovered materials beyond compost (EESP comment: e.g. digestate see www.phosphorusplatform.eu/regulatory) .

Opinion of the EESC on the EU Fertilisers Regulation Revision, adopted 13-14 July 2016, refs. NAT/691 – EESC-2016-03054-00-01-AC-TRA (EN) 1/8, rapporteur Cillian Lohan www.eesc.europa.eu/?i=portal.en.nat-opinions.39587

The programme  is now online for the ESPP workshop on “Pharmaceuticals and organic chemicals in sewage biosolids: questions for recycling”, Malmö (near Copenhagen) 27th October 8h00 – 12h00, in cooperation with the Nordic Phosphorus Conference, 27th October (12h00) – 28th 13h30 (same venue).
See for more details and registration here.

ESPP’s 2016 General Assembly will take place Brussels, 1st December 2016 (9h – 17h), looking at phosphorus in industry: sustainability, recycling, new applications and processes, P4 and phosphorus chemicals. Tis is within the EU’s First Raw Materials Week parallel to ESPP’s general Assembly, the thematic meeting will enable industry and stakeholder dialogue on developments such as: new uses and applications for phosphorus in industry and energy, P-recovery from waste streams to industrial chemicals and P4, recycling of phosphorus in industry through other routes (e.g. fire safety chemicals, plastics), reducing environmental impact of P chemistry, challenges and opportunities around medical and industry applications nano forms of phosphates.

The EU’s “Expert Group for Technical Advice on Organic Production” (EGTOP) has published its response to two dossiers proposing authorisation of recycled phosphate products as fertilisers in organic agriculture (under EU Organic Farming Regulation 889/2008). The dossier for struvite was submitted by the UK in 2014 and concerns struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) recovered in sewage works or from animal waste processing. The dossier for calcined phosphates was submitted by Austria in 2011 and concerns recovery from ashes of sewage sludge, meat and bone meal (MBM), or other biomass ash. The committee concludes that for Ostara Pearl struvite (the submitted dossier) there is no hygiene risk (organic pollutants or pathogens), but that this is not proven for other struvite production methods. Struvite recovery is noted to be conform to environmental objectives (reduces N and P losses to surface waters, recycles nutrients, reduces consumption of non-renewable P resources) and concludes that struvite should be authorised for organic farming “provided that the method of production ensures hygienic and pollutant safety”. For calcined phosphates, the committee also concludes that recovery from ashes is conform to environmental objectives (but with some concerns about energy consumption) and that calcined phosphates should be authorised for organic farming subject to being recovered from sewage sludge incineration ash and that heavy metal content should be limited (proposal: chromium(VI) non detectable, other heavy metals “minimised”). However, EGTOP also concludes that these two products cannot be authorised under the Organic Farming Regulation until they are authorised under the EU Fertilisers Regulation, so confirming the importance of the ‘STRUBIAS’ process underway to integrate such products into the current revision of this Regulation.

Expert Group for Technical Advice on Organic Production (EGTOP) “Final Report on Organic Fertilizers And Soil Conditioners (II)”, final version 2 February 2016

A meeting was organised by CEN (the European Standardisation Committee) and CENELEC (electrical equipment) on 'Standards for circular economy: waste management and secondary raw materials' in Brussels 8th September. Of around 100 participants, ESPP and the paper industry were maybe the only representatives of the bio-nutrient and bio-materials sector. Yet, the need for standards development to support nutrient recycling and valorisation of bio-waste streams was made clear. Some of the day’s conclusions are strongly applicable to the nutrient circular economy: need to standardise terminology and definitions, including how to measure the recycling rate, importance of public information (e.g. traceability) to develop trust; potential of EN standards to open markets for export; quality standards for input materials, processes and recycled (nutrient) products; benchmarking to indicate for what uses a recycled product is appropriate. The meeting registered that a number of initiatives are underway or expected: EC mandates to CEN for standards development to support the Fertilisers Regulation revision and the EU Circular Economy Package, interface work to identify gaps and incoherence between fertiliser regulations, REACH, waste regulation; BS 8001 proposed standard “Framework for circular economy principles”. This meeting aims to launch a CEN informal process for dialogue on on standards for the circular economy, waste and secondary materials, in which ESPP will actively participate.

Historical SCOPE newsletters about phosphorus and nutrient management are now online on the ESPP website and can be downloaded here.

With the opening of its « Technophos » Centre of Excellence and Technology in Varna, Bulgaria, the Belgian group EcoPhos consolidates its pioneering role in the area of phosphates and phosphorus recycling. For more details see this information, the website and the live stream of the opening.

Do you have an innovative idea related to manure processing? Join the competition and win the Ivan Tolpe Award. More details and the website.

Phosphates 2017 530 115

13 - 15 March, Tampa, Florida, USA.

The only global event for the fertilizer, industrial and feed phosphate markets. 

http://www.crugroup.com/events/phosphates

Best practice models from the Nordic countries and Europe, challenges of P recovery and recycling, quality standards and developing secondary markets with the Nordic Council of Ministers, the EU Commission, EPAs of the Nordic Countries, companies and local authorities. Oganized by Swedish Waste Management, Norwegian Waste Management and Recycling Association, and DAKOFA Waste and Resource Network Denmark and is supported by the Nordic Council of Ministers in cooperation with the Nordic country national water industry federations.

Programme and registration https://dakofa.com/conference/conference

Facebook https://www.facebook.com/events/1004884832892874

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