Report and presentations are now online for the ESPP workshop Pharmaceuticals in sewage biosolids (27/10/2016). The main workshop conclusions are:

  • Incineration of sewage sludge can be an appropriate solution depending on local conditions (e.g. contaminated sludge, lack of agricultural space for spreading …) but is lower down the recycling hierarchy (energy “recovery” not recycling). Even if phosphorus is recovered from ash (to produce fertiliser or for industry applications), organic carbon, nitrogen, potassium, sulphur and micro-nutrients are lost.
  • Concerns about sludge contaminants must be taken seriously and addressed both by developing data and information to support risk assessments, and by taking upstream actions wherever possible to reduce contamination of sewage sludge. For industrial chemicals and consumer chemicals, this is possible by actions targeting users and households (reduce discharge to sewers), but for pharmaceuticals it is much more difficult.
  • Public exposure risk to organic contaminants via sewage sludge should be put into context of exposure from other routes (both the same and other organic contaminants via direct contact and in household dust, air, water). However, this does not absolve the need to address sewage sludge use in agriculture in order to inform farmers, the food industry, consumers and decision makers.
  • Veterinary pharmaceuticals and hormones are also present at significant levels in manures, and this should also be addressed, both by reductions at source where possible, and by monitoring and treatment where manure nutrients are recycled.
  • There still a need for more data regarding fate of organic contaminants, including pharmaceuticals in sewage sludge. There is more data on heavy metals, and more data on organic contaminants in water (sewage works discharge, rivers, drinking water) than in biosolids. The question is multi-faceted: contaminants in biosolids, fate in sewage treatment and in sludge treatment processes, in soils, in crops, both short and medium term presence and impacts.
  • Pharmaceuticals and other organic chemicals in sewage sludge are varied and complex, and cannot be considered as a single issue. Of the wide number of molecules, new pharmaceuticals and chemicals, breakdown products, which to monitor? Further data and understanding is needed to try to identify different families of substances which have similar behaviour, but without over-simplifying.
  • Pharmaceuticals and hormones are important challenges, because of the inherent obstacles to upstream reductions, both in sewage sludge and in animal manures.
  • More immediately however, industrial and household chemicals require monitoring and action, in particular:
    • PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate) and other perfluorinated chemicals, e.g. from Teflon
    • triclosan and triclocarban
    • brominated flame retardants and substitute chemicals
    • dioxins
    • PAH (poly aromatic hydrocarbons)
  • Composting is generally effective for removing many, but not all pharmaceuticals. Female hormones however are largely not degraded.
  • Removal of organic contaminants in sewage treatment systems is very variable and difficult to predict, depending on contaminant molecule chemistry, sludge properties, dewatering, treatment conditions.
  • Anaerobic digestion can break down some pharmaceuticals, but further work is needed to better understand how to improve this, including looking at sludge disintegration upstream of digesters (e.g. Cambi, Haarslev, Biothely). Further work is needed on degradation metabolites to verify if these pose issues.
  • There is potential to develop new sludge treatment process chains in order to improve pharmaceuticals removal, e.g. treatments upstream of anaerobic digestion, or modification of conditions in digesters and in the sewage works biological treatment cycles
  • Female hormones are often not degraded in sludge treatment, but this may be not of environmental or health significance. Manures either spread or going directly to soils from animals in the field often contains significant levels of such hormones.
  • Antibiotic resistance is a globally important health issue, and should be better studied for sewage biosolids application. Knowledge shows that soils can naturally adapt, because soil organisms naturally release antibiotics, so that antibiotic resistance appearing after sludge application seems to be only temporary.
  • Several studies confirm that movement of organic contaminants to groundwater is very low from sewage sludge land application. This is unsurprising, as the contaminants found in sludges are those which tend to partition to solids, and not to water.
  • Data is needed to develop robust risk assessments of agricultural use of sewage biosolids, and also of manures, taking into account fate of and possible impacts of pharmaceuticals in sewage treatment processes, sludge treatment, in soil and possibly in crops and for grazing livestock. This cannot be feasibly done for the large number of pharmaceutical molecules and other organic contaminants, so screening is needed to identify priority substances.

Newsletter about nutrient stewardship - European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform (ESPP).

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Link to www.phosphorusplatform.eu/eNews5
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Success stories
- NuReSys Appeldoorn struvite plant now operational
- Robobank selects nutrient recycling innovators

Policy and regulation
- EU Commission call for information on struvite – biochar – ashes
- German sludge P-recycling ordinance notified to Europe
- EESC Opinion on Fertilisers Regulation
- Manure management in livestock intensive regions
- Nordic Phosphorus Network announced by Nordic Council of Ministers
- European farmers’ federation position on Fertilisers Regulation
- France Nitrates Directive programme approved by Brussels

Funding opportunities
- Two new Horizon 2020 research calls on raw materials
Science & media
- Update of phosphorus Dietary Reference Intake not justified
- Calcium phosphate nano particles inhibit cancer cells
- Comparing manure management to reducing livestock numbers
- Improving digestate fertiliser performance by injection
- No risk bacterial expected from recovered struvite


Phosphorus stewardship in the chemicals industry
and new industrial applications
Thursday 1st December, Brussels

ESPP (European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform) General Assembly and thematic meeting within the First EU Raw Materials Week (EU Raw materials information & brokerage event 30th November)
Register:
Programme: www.phosphorusplatform.eu


Success stories


The NuReSys struvite recovery unit at Appeldoorn (Vallei en Veluwe water board), The Netherlands, is now operational. The NuReSys Stripper unit operates on anaerobic digester outflow liquor, upstream of sludge thickening by centrifuges. This optimises the beneficial impact objectives of improved sludge dewatering and reduced polymer consumption in dewatering, and to avoid nuisance deposit risks in sludge dewatering equipment. This is obtained by simply exhausting the magnesium present. After dewatering the effluent is lead to a NuReSys Crystalizer where MgCl2 is added to form struvite. When works engineering upstream of the unit is completed the plant in Apeldoorn will produce about 750 tonnes/year of struvite. NuReSys sell recovered struvite to the fertiliser industry, for example Timac Agro who use it after conditioning as a specialist starter fertiliser for maze, showing high performance results in field crop trials (see SCOPE Newsletter n°118).
See NuReSys success story in SCOPE Newsletter n°115.

The world’s leading food and agribusiness bank, Robobank, has nominated 10 innovative agri-food start-ups for FoodBytes! Boulder, of which three concern nutrient recycling or food loss minimisation. Biotech Services Senegal, will collect, sort, grind, sieve and process urban wastes to produce organic fertilisers, using a specific fermentation process (Biopost). FreshSurety addresses food waste for fresh produce (fruit, vegetables, but also cut flowers), with new technology based on sensors of chemical metabolites emitted to air (a high-tech equivalent of sniffing fruit to gauge its freshness) and algorithms enabling to real-time report on freshness and better manage shelf-life and consumer-delivered quality. Mad Agriculture will grow black soldier fly larvae on food waste, then convert the larvae into a protein-rich supplement for animal and fish feed, so recycling nutrients. Note: other companies already have full-scale scale black soldier fly larvae factories operational in Canada and South Africa, see SCOPE Newsletter n°118. Another of the ten selected start-ups is One Hop Kitchen producing insect-based Bolognese source, but the two projects are not linked.

Policy and regulation

In the context of the future European Fertilisers Regulation (STRUBIAS working group), the European Commission (JRC-IPTS) is calling for input of any information relevant to:
  • agronomic value; environmental and health safety; and potential market
  • recovered struvite, biochars or ashes (e.g. from sewage sludge incineration, biomass or manure combustion …)
  • use of these materials either as fertilisers or soil improvers, or as raw materials (ingredients) for production of these
The European Commission will use this information to prepare an Impact Assessment (to evaluate whether or not each of these three materials should be included into the future EU Fertiliser Regulation (as CMCs Component Material Categories) and if the impact assessment concludes positively, then draft criteria for this inclusion. All relevant information (publications, data, studies, market estimates, examples of products already placed on the market …) should be sent EU JRC as below.
Send all relevant information to by 15th November, or as soon as possible. If any information sent is company confidential (e.g. product analysis, company market data) then this should be indicated clearly on the sending email. Please send non-confidential information also in copy to because ESPP is represented in STRUBIAS.

The new German sewage sludge ordinance (AbfKlärV), which will make phosphorus recovery obligatory for most of Germany’s sewage, has been notified by Germany to the European Commission on September 26th 2016 and may enter into force in early 2018. The ordinance will make phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge obligatory for all German sewage works larger than 50,000 person equivalents (p.e.), that is, around 500 out of a total of c. 9 300 sewage works in Germany. These 500 larger sewage works represent around 2/3 of the total phosphorus removed from German wastewater and transferred into sludge. For these larger sewage works, phosphorus recovery will be obligatory if the sludge contains > 2% phosphorus (dry solids), either by P-recovery from the sludge or by mono-incineration and recovery from sewage sludge incineration ash. If P < 2%, then co-incineration will be authorized. Land application of sludge will only be allowed for sewage works < 50,000 p.e. and will have to respect the quality criteria of the new German fertilizing ordinance (DüV). Currently 29% of German sewage sludge is spread on farmland. The entry into force of these two new ordinances (AbfKlärV and DüV) is expected to be cut this by half.
See ESPP’s SCOPE Newsletter in press http://www.phosphorusplatform.eu/scope-in-print/scope-in-press/1327-german-sludge-p-recycling-ordinance-notified-to-europe and (in German) http://www.bmub.bund.de/themen/wasser-abfall-boden/abfallwirtschaft/wasser-abfallwirtschaft-download/artikel/abfklaerv-klaerschlammverordnung

The European Economic and Social Committee has adopted its ‘Opinion’ on the EU Fertilisers Regulation revision. EESC supports the objective of extending the existing regulation from only mineral fertilisers (at present) to cover organic and waste based fertilisers, subject to ensuring environmental protection, underlining that recycled fertilisers “may in the future constitute an important part of an integrated circular economy” (recalling the EESC Opinion on the Circular Economy jobs and SMEs, 2014). The need to clarify definitions of a “secondary raw material”, waste, by-products, end-of-waste are underlined, pointing to the contradictions in the current text between application to PFCs and CMCs [$4.2 of EESC Opinion]. EESC wants systems of control, labelling (present in the proposed text) and [$1.3] traceability (not present). EESC underlines [$1.9, $4.5] that municipal sewage sludge has potential and value as a raw material for organic fertiliser – whereas this is excluded in the current regulation proposal. EESC also notes [$4.8] the need to exempt from REACH recovered materials beyond compost (EESP comment: e.g. digestate see www.phosphorusplatform.eu/regulatory). EESC calls for incentives to support company investments in [$1.8, $4.10] in nutrient recycling, in particular for recycling nutrients from livestock manure.
Opinion of the EESC on the EU Fertilisers Regulation Revision, adopted 13-14 July 2016, refs. NAT/691 – EESC-2016-03054-00-01-AC-TRA (EN) 1/8, rapporteur Cillian Lohan http://www.eesc.europa.eu/?i=portal.en.nat-opinions.39587

Stakeholders and experts from six European regions with high livestock intensity (Brittany, Flanders, Netherlands, Lombardy, Catalonia and North-West Germany) met at the pig production forum organised by COOPERL (France’s biggest pig production cooperative), Rennes, Brittany, 13th September. Although production systems and environmental contexts may be very different between these regions, a number of regulatory and market trends were identified , in particular: opportunities to develop markets towards consumers who are prepared to pay higher prices for pork produced respecting animal rights and environmental criteria, phosphorus spreading limits (beyond the ‘literal’ implementation of the Nitrates Directive which limits only nitrogen), processing manure to enable production of recycled fertiliser products with involvement of new actors (contractors, farmers’ cooperatives, organic fertiliser companies) in manure processing and marketing, value of traceability to ensure user (farmer, food industry) confidence in recycled fertiliser products, reducing ammonia emissions, because of both greenhouse gas impacts and local air quality (including PM10 particles).
Summary in ESPP’s SCOPE Newsletter in press www.phosphorusplatform.eu

At the Nordic Phosphorus Conference, organised by Danish, Swedish and Norwegian waste associations (DAKOFA, Avfall Norge, Afvall Sverige), Malmö, 27-28 October, a Nordic Phosphorus Network was announced by the Nordic Council of Ministers. Michael Höysti, Secretariat of the Nordic Council of Ministers, underlined that the Nordic countries can and should take the lead in phosphorus sustainability in Europe. He indicated that the new network will provide a platform for phosphorus recycling and reuse, information exchange, and will identify challenges and define a Nordic phosphorus strategy.
A summary of the Nordic Phosphorus Conference and of the ESPP international workshop on organic contaminants in sewage biosolids organised prior to the Conference will be published shortly on the ESPP website “SCOPE Newsletter in press” www.phosphorusplatform.eu Speakers slides are available on the Nordic Phosphorus Conference website https://dakofa.com/conference/conference/programme

The EU farmers’ and agri-cooperatives’ federation COPA COGECA has published (ref. FER(16)3924) a position paper expressing concern that the revision of the EU Fertilisers Regulation, by enabling EU marked recycled products to displace existing nationally authorised fertilisers, will increase fertiliser costs and reduce the quality of products sold to farmers. The economic logic is not clear as to how opening the market to new recycled fertilisers products would lead to an increase in price of fertilisers already on the market. The federation also suggests that competition with recycled fertiliser products will make it more difficult for farmers to dispose of their own manure (under Nitrates Directive manure N application limits). COPA COGECA proposes to limit organic carbon to 1% in “inorganic fertilisers”, to not reduce cadmium limits below 60 mgCd/kgP2O5 (again because of possible cost implications); to oblige declaration of different nitrogen forms and of phosphorus solubility tests, and to impose stricter constraints on organic and organo-mineral fertilisers - composts and digestates (in order to not undermine currently existing stricter regulations in some Member States). COPA COGECA wants processed manure to be a recognised EU fertiliser ingredient (CMC11) and wants digestate to be exempt from REACH – but only for digestates produced from agricultural by-products.

France has updated its Nitrates Directive Action Programme, intended to prevent agricultural nitrate pollution of surface and ground waters in Nitrate Vulnerable Zones. France was condemned by the European Court of Justice in 2013 and 2014 (SCOPE Newsletter n°107). The updated Programme corrects points raised in the condemnation, five years after initiation of the proceedings by the European Commission in 2011: forbidden manure spreading periods, manure storage prescriptions, forbidding of spreading on frozen soils, accounting of nitrogen from livestock other than pigs and cows. However, the Government’s own Environmental Authority opinion considers that the changes are “a minima” to respond to the condemnation, include other non justified changes (e.g. use of simplified nutrient balance on pig farms) and do not appear to correspond to an “ambition to restore ecosystems perturbed by nitrates”. The Authority requests an evaluation of the impacts of the Action Programme on eutrophication, water quality, Water Framework Objectives and Natura 2000 areas.
Journal de l’Environnement 30/9/2016Arrêté soumis à consultation 2016 – Opinion of the Autorité Environnementale adopted 16/3/2015

Funding opportunities

The European Commission (EC) published on 14th October two new research funding calls within the Horizon 2020 research program Societal Challenge 5 “Climate action, Environment, Resource Efficiency and Raw Materials“. The EC concludes that the EU is highly dependent on raw materials that are crucial for a strong European industrial economy. Securing the sustainable access to raw materials, including metals, industrial minerals and construction raw materials, and particularly Critical Raw Materials (CRM), for the EU economy is of high importance. Call SC5-14-2016-2017 about “Raw materials Innovation actions” focusses on “sustainable metallurgical processes”, and “processing of lower grade and/or complex primary and/or secondary raw materials in the most sustainable ways”. The EC wants to stimulate industry to scale-up promising raw materials production technologies and to demonstrate that raw materials can be produced in an innovative and sustainable way. The objective is to make sure that (1) research and innovation end-up on the market, (2) to strengthen the competitiveness of the European raw materials industries, (3) to meet ambitious energy and climate 2030 targets and (4) to gain the trust of the EU citizens to raw materials sector. The other call SC5-15-2016-2017 about “Raw materials policy support actions” focusses on optimising collection of raw materials data in Member States. According to the EC, one of the major challenges regarding the EU knowledge base on primary and secondary mineral raw materials is the quality, harmonisation of the collected data and information sharing at the different levels within the EU. There is a need to optimise collection of data in Member States in support of the EU Knowledge Base on Raw Materials (EC Raw Materials Information System – RMIS). For both calls the first-stage deadline is 7 March 2017.
EC Horizon 2020 call SC5-14-2016-2017
http://ec.europa.eu/research/participants/portal/desktop/en/opportunities/h2020/topics/sc5-14-2016-2017.html
EC Horizon 2020 call SC5-15-2016-2017
http://ec.europa.eu/research/participants/portal/desktop/en/opportunities/h2020/topics/sc5-15-2016-2017.html

Science & media

A methodical scanning of studies concerning diet phosphorus and health concludes that there is not sufficient evidence to justify updating the US Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) which dates from 1977. The DRI takes into account both recommended minimum intakes (EAR Estimated Average Requirement and RDA Recommended Dietary Allowance) and safe maxima (TUIL Tolerable Upper Intake Level). Here, relevant publications since 1996 were assessed: 127 potential publications were identified, of which 29 were fully reviewed. Papers were rejected because either non-systematic review papers only, addressed mechanisms not outcomes, not relevant to phosphorus – health response or not concerning healthy populations. Only 15 papers were finally identified as relevant, and these do not provide indications that diet phosphorus is linked to health issues such as cardio-vascular disease, bone mineral density. The authors note that the phosphorus DRI was planned for update in 1997, which has not happened, and that this evidence scan concludes that there is insufficient new evidence to prioritise a review of the phosphorus DRI.
“Scanning for new evidence to prioritize updates to the Dietary Reference Intakes: case studies for thiamin and phosphorus”, P. Brannon et al., Am J Clin Nutr (AJCN) 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.115.128256

High temperatures are known to transform amorphous calcium phosphates into crystalline forms with lower water solubility. Here tri calcium phosphate (= hydroxyapatite = TCP) was sintered at 700 - 1000°C then tested for inhibition in vitro of MCF-7 strain breast cancer cells. 900°C sintering of TCP produced approximately spherical nanospheres, with less agglomeration and so smaller particle size than at 700 or 1000°C. These nano calcium phosphate particles achieved 80% inhibition of breast cancer cells at 50 mg/l. A differential effect to non cancer cells may be related to higher negative charges on the cancer cells. This study confirms previous work suggesting that hydroxyapatite nano particles can inhibit cancer cell proliferation (Choi 2015, Han 2014, Meena 2012, Morgan 2001).
“Inhibitory Effect of Tricalcium Phosphate Sintered at Different Temperatures on Human Breast Cancer Cell Line MCF-7”, M. Rahmanian et al., Tehran, Iran, Multidisciplinary Cancer Investigation, January 2017, Volume 1, Issue 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.21859/mci-010112

The EU-funded (Horizon2020) TRANSrisk project is comparing two possible transition pathways to reduce the environmental impacts of livestock production in the Netherlands: reduction of livestock numbers or integrated manure management (IMM). The project indicates that livestock production represents 3% of Netherlands GDP, so that reducing livestock numbers would have considerable economic impacts. At the same time, significant action is needed to reduce agricultural environmental impacts are recognised to be needed, including greenhouse emissions, ammonia emissions and phosphates. Mature management is expected to have cost impacts for farmers, to offer the benefit of increasing renewable energy production (anaerobic digestion of manure to produce biogas), and may have some negative side-effects (e.g. reduced animal grazing time, as farmers optimise in-stable manure production to input to biogas). Livestock reduction may not have anticipated positive results if production is simply transferred to other regions of the world. Farmers, manure managers, bioenergy actors and other stakeholders are invited to contact the project to participate.
“Cows and pigs for sale!? Assessing the side-effects of low carbon transition pathways in livestock farming in the Netherlands”, Addendum JIQ Magazine vol. 22, no. 3, Oct 2016 Joint Implementation Network (JIN http://cdn.jin.ngo/) Climate & Sustainability

Short-term (2 year) field tests of digestate in Brescia, Lombardy, Italy, show that it is as effective or more effective as a nitrogen fertiliser than urea, on condition that it is soil injected not surface applied. The digestate was from a biogas plant using as inputs cattle slurry and energy crops and it was applied (surface application and soil injection, whole digestate or liquid fraction) in field trials for two growing seasons on silage maize, with comparison to no fertiliser, urea and animal slurry (both surface applied). Injected digestate gave better crop production than urea, whereas surface application gave slightly lower results. Ammonia emissions were generally slightly lower for injected digestate than for surface urea application, but were higher for surface applied digestate. This study shows that, as for animal manures, application method of digestates is very important, with soil injection offering better N fertiliser effectiveness and lower ammonia emissions.
“Short-term experiments in using digestate products as substitutes for mineral (N) fertilizer: Agronomic performance, odours, and ammonia emission impacts”, C. Riva, V. Orzi, M. Carozzi, M. Acutis, G. Boccasile, S. Lonati, F. Tambone, G. D'Imporzano, F. Adani, Science of the Total Environment 547 (2016) 206–214 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.156

An article by Shiba et al. indicates that two strains of Bactillus subtilus bacteria were found in struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) recovered from raw sewage sludge at East Rand sewage works, South Africa. The process involved extraction of P from the sludge using 1M sulphuric acid at 5%, ion exchange to separate P from ion, then struvite precipitation (at pH 9) and drying for 12 hours at 100°C. The recovered struvite was then tested for bacteria growth (petri dish culture). Bacillus subtilis strains were shown to be present, but the authors note that these bacteria exist in the general environment, as well as in human and animal gastrointestinal tracts, so that their presence may have come from laboratory working conditions not from the sewage. The authors also underline that these bacteria are in any case naturally found in humans and soil, so are not a pathogen issue, with no possibility of harm to users of the recovered struvite.
“Extraction and precipitation of phosphorus from sewage sludge”, N. Shiba, F. Ntuli, Waste Management 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2016.07.031

Copyright © 2016 European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform, All rights reserved.

European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform (ESPP) General Assembly focussing on Phosphorus stewardship in industrial applications will be held on Thursday 1st December, Brussels within the First EU Raw Materials Week. Success stories and innovation in P stewardship in industry will be presented and areas for possible research or value-chain collaboration will be identified.

The general programme of the day is as follows, more details in the programme:
8h30 – 10h30    ESPP General Assembly (open to non-members): accounts, election of Board, actions underway and action plan priorities for 2017
10h30   Coffee break
11h00 -17h30    Phosphorus stewardship in industrial applications

Participants: ESPP members and network - waste, water, chemicals, fertiliser industries, policy makers, knowledge centres.
To participate: registration obligatory

After more than 10 years of revision, the new draft of the German sewage sludge ordinance (AbfKlärV), which will make phosphorus recovery obligatory for most of Germany’s sewage, has been sent by the Federal Ministry of Environment (BMUB) to the European Commission for notification at September 26th 2016. This notification is the standard procedure for new member state regulations (directive 2015/1535/EU). Once approved by EC, the content cannot be changed afterwards except for minor adaptions. During notification, there is a three months stand-still agreement.

The next steps after notification will be cabinet resolution within the German Federal government in January 2017 and presentation for enactment to the Federal Council of Germany and the Parliament in spring 2017. The new ordinance may thus enter into force with a date 1st January 2018.

The ordinance will make phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge obligatory for all German sewage works larger than 50,000 person equivalents (p.e.), that is, around 500 out of a total of c. 9 300 sewage works in Germany. These 500 larger sewage works represent around 2/3 of the total phosphorus removed from German wastewater and transferred into sludge.

For these larger sewage works, phosphorus recovery will be obligatory if the sludge contains more than 2% phosphorus (dry solids), either by P-recovery from the sludge or by mono-incineration and recovery from sewage sludge incineration ash. If P < 2%, then co-incineration will be authorized. Land application of sludge will only be allowed for sewage works < 50,000 p.e. Currently 29% of German sewage sludge is spread on farmland, and will have to respect the quality criteria of the new German fertilizing ordinance (DüV). The entry into force of these two new ordinances (AbfKlärV and DüV). Is expected to be cut by half the amount of sewage sludge going to farmland.

The new fertilizing ordinance is the German implementation of the EU Nitrates Directive and will already dramatically impact sewage sludge use in Germany in 2017.

Article by Christian Kabbe (former P-REX).
See also: http://www.bmub.bund.de/themen/wasser-abfall-boden/abfallwirtschaft/wasser-abfallwirtschaft-download/artikel/abfklaerv-klaerschlammverordnung

After compost, PVC and non-ferrous metals from bottom ash, struvite will be the fourth secondary resource to be addressed within the International Green Deal North Sea Resources Roundabout (NSRR). Struvite is a specific mineral form of magnesium ammonium phosphate recovered from waste water. A working group of French and Dutch public and private sector experts has its first meeting in the Dutch embassy in Paris on October 7. The case, initiated by Suez, Veolia, Reststoffenunie and Waternet, will focused on the perceived barriers relating to the use of struvite in crystal form. It will specifically explore ways to facilitate the export of struvite recovered from municipal wastewater plants as a raw material for the purpose of producing fertiliser. The initiators hope that this case will be a first step towards creating a European market for struvite.

Full press release here.
More details and a video about the Green Deal North Sea Resources Roundabout.
Parlimament Magezine article about the Green Deal.

Newsletter about nutrient stewardship - European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform (ESPP).

Please subscribe www.phosphorusplatform.eu/Subscribe 
Link to www.phosphorusplatform.eu/eNews4
Download as PDF

Summary:
Success stories
NuReSys struvite recovery technology chosen at Braunschweig, Germany.
NuReSys Appeldoorn struvite plant now operational
Phosphorus recycling from expired fire extinguishers
Outotec and Thermo-Systems partner for nutrient recycling

Opportunities
€ 400 million for raw materials in Horizon 2020
Policy
EU Fertilisers Regulation enters Parliament – Member State discussion
Standard for land use of sewage sludge out for consultation
UN Environment Assembly recognises global nutrient challenges
Restriction on ammonium salts in insulation materials
ECHA consultation on toxicity testing of monosodium phosphate
EU Organic farming committee positive opinion on recovered struvite and calcined phosphates
CEN considers standardisation needs for secondary raw materials

Science and media
Phosphate fertiliser prices falling
Evaluation of manure management in Europe
Technology reviews: nutrient recovery from digestate
EFSA considers data on urea user risks
Agriculture and air pollution
Dietary choices key to reducing phosphorus footprint
Innovative solutions to food waste

Events

 

ESPP workshop “Pharmaceuticals and organic chemicals in sewage biosolids: questions for recycling”: Malmö (near Copenhagen) 27th October 8h00 – 12h00, with the Nordic Phosphorus Conference, 27 - 28 October. Programme www.phosphorusplatform.eu

ESPP General Assembly: phosphorus innovation and stewardship in the chemicals industry: Brussels, 1st December www.phosphorusplatform.eu
For full list of events, see below the news section of this email and on www.phosphorusplatform.eu

 

Success stories

The Municipality of Braunschweig, assisted by PFI Planungsgemeinschaft GbR, has awarded its future phosphorus recovery plant to the combination Bremer-Pro-Aqua - who is the main contractor and will build the struvite recovery unit - and NuReSys - who provides design, support, start-up and commissioning of the unit. The P-recovery unit will treat 100% of the sewage sludge dewatering liquor from the Steinhof sewage works (275 to 350 000 e.h. biological phosphorus removal EBPR). The requirements of the tender required a versatile and flexible solution: flow to the struvite reactor can vary from 8 to 25 m³/h and soluble phosphate (P- PO4) levels between 300 and 800 ppm. The combination offered a tailor-made solution which offers phosphate recovery taking into account the possible effects on post and preceding treatment processes.
Press release: http://www.nuresys-p.be/files/160924-Press-Release-Braunschweig.pdf - http://www.abwasserverband-bs.de/ - http://www.bremerproaqua.de/

The PHOSave project (Horizon 2020 SME Instrument), led by PROPHOS Chemicals will construct a pilot plant near Cromona, Lombardy, to recover and recycle phosphate from exhausted fire extinguishing powders. Over recent years, problematic chemicals in fire extinguishers have been largely replaced by phosphate based dry powders, considered as not posing environmental or health issues and effective in combating fire. Phosphates are also widely used as additives to water sprayed on forest and wildland fires, again because they are considered (see e.g. review Kalabokidis 2000) to have minimal health impacts and to generally not harm ecosystems. Prophos Chemicals is Italy’s only producer of dry fire extinguisher chemicals of all classes. Fire extinguishers have to be periodically emptied, overhauled, refilled and re-pressurised, to guarantee reliable performance in case of fire. The recovered phosphate will be recycled into the chemical industry or as fertilisers.

Outotec, a global leader in minerals and metals processing technologies, has agreed partnership with Thermo-Systems, German-based leader in low-energy drying solutions. These technologies will enable pre-drying of municipal sewage sludge and other bio-materials (e.g. manures) before thermal treatment, where Outotec can deliver a range of technologies for energy recovery and nutrient recycling. Options include mixing of dried bio-materials with biomass ashes to develop slow-release, organo-mineral fertiliser products. A pilot is under construction, in cooperation with the Finland organic fertiliser producer Ecolan Oy, near Nokia, Finland.

Opportunities

The European Commission has published an update of the 2016-2017 Horizon 2020 Work Programme for climate, environment and raw materials, allocating €400 million to raw materials. This will target mainly the EU Critical Raw Materials list, which includes phosphate rock, and will include raw material data systems, international cooperation, the objective of a World Forum on Raw Materials, international networks of raw materials training centres and raw materials ‘innovation actions’ (pilot projects or scale-up and roll-out of new technologies to produce raw materials).
Horizon 2020 Work Programme 2016 – 2017 - 12. Climate action, environment, resource efficiency and raw materials C(2016)4614 of 25 July 2016

Policy

The revision of the EU Fertilisers Regulation will define European criteria for placing on the market of recycled nutrient products (as fertilisers, as soil improvers or as artificial soils), including composts, digestates, plant and crop by-products, food industry wastes, animal by-products and in the future recovered fertiliser products such as struvite or ammonia salts. The draft text published in May 2016 has now entered the European Parliament – Council (Member States) discussion and amendment process. A first proposal for amendments has been published, as a starting point, by Slovakia, the Council Presidency. This includes tighter contaminant levels for both organic and inorganic fertilisers. ESPP is inputting to the discussion process of this text, addressing in particular: the need to include traceability as an option (important to ensure farmer and food industry confidence for nutrients recycled from organic wastes), animal by-products and manures (currently an “empty box” in the Regulation proposal CMC11), workability and definitions of CMCs and PFCs, interactions with REACH …
Summary of Commission proposal: SCOPE Newsletter n° 120 and www.phosphorusplatform.eu/regulatory

A working draft for an international ISO standard for land application of wastewater biosolids has been circulated for comment (not published online). The guidelines cover sewage sludge and composted sludge application to farmland (for food crops, biofuels), to forestry and for soil remediation. The document considers that land application of biosolids brings advantages of improved soil quality (soil carbon, biological activity, density, stability and porosity, cation exchange enabling reduced fertiliser use and pH), nutrient supply and greenhouse emissions benefits (long-term sequestration of c. 50% of biosolids carbon in soil, offset of c. 200 kgCO2 /dry tonne biosolids for nitrogen and phosphorus mineral fertiliser equivalent. The draft ISO Guidelines provides definitions, general information about biosolids nutrients and quality criteria, and then guidelines for application for food and non-food crops and for land reclamation, including principles of risk management, application programme definition and management, information of farmers and others, and sampling. As proposed, the document provides general outlines within which existing national or local biosolids quality and management schemes can be implemented.
ISO 275/WG4 - ISO 19698 WD “Land application of biosolids: guidelines for the land applications of biosolids and biosolids derived products”, dated 5/9/2016. Document not available online: contact your national standards organisation or

UNEA-2, second meeting of the United Nations Environment Assembly brought together 174 nations and 120 Ministers in Nairobi, May 2016. The final resolutions on Sustainable Consumption and Production (UNEP/EA2/L.9) and on Oceans and Seas (UNEP/EA2/L.11/Rev.1) recognise the need for further action to reduce nutrient inputs to the marine environment. The in 2012 Manilla Declaration is confirmed, mandating action on this by UNEP and GPA (Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land Based Activities). A resolution also recognises the need to address food waste (UNEP/EA2/L.10/Rev.1).

The EU has published a Restriction of the use of “inorganic ammonium salts” in cellulose insulation materials, unless ammonia emissions are shown to be low (specified concentrations and CEN/S 16516 adapted conditions). This concerns ammonium phosphates and polyphosphates used for fire safety in a range of cellulose-based building insulating materials, including recycled materials such as textiles, straw or paper. The restriction follows incidents of ammonia emissions occurring during storage or installation of such materials (not during building use) related to temperature and humidity. Ammonia salts and ammonia gas are not considered to show chronic toxicity but in enclosed spaces can be irritating to throat, lungs and eyes and so pose risks for workers. The restriction as published enables continuing use of ammonia phosphates for fire safety, subject to processing or application which prevents ammonia emissions.
Commission Regulation 2016/2017 of 23 June 2016, amending REACH http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=uriserv:OJ.L_.2016.166.01.0001.01.ENG&toc=OJ:L:2016:166:TOC

ECHA (European Chemical Agency) has opened to 17th October 2016 a public consultation on animal toxicity testing of sodium dihydrogenorthophosphate (EC 231-449-2, monosodium phosphate), for reproductive toxicity (extended one-generation reproductive toxicity study). The testing proposal has been submitted under REACH by the producers of this substance, who propose to carry out this testing at their expense. The submission notes that there are no studies available to generate necessary information for REACH chemical dossier endpoints, but that there is no data suggesting toxicity. This phosphate is approved for use in human foods (E339 sodium or potassium orthophosphates) and has been widely used, and indeed will simply dissociate to sodium ions Na+ and phosphate ions PO4- in solution and in the body. The public is invited to submit any comments on the proposed animal testing, or any additional relevant data. The full list of all studies relevant to inorganic phosphates is published by industry at http://www.inorganic-phosphates.org/files/ip-consortium/IP%20Website/Documents/Studies/IP_All_studies_list.pdf
ECHA testing proposal consultation: reproductive toxicity (extended one-generation reproductive toxicity study) on Sodium dihydrogenorthophosphate, EC Number 231-449-2, CAS Number 7558-80-7 https://echa.europa.eu/information-on-chemicals/testing-proposals/current/-/substance-rev/14512/term

The EU’s “Expert Group for Technical Advice on Organic Production” (EGTOP) has published its response to two dossiers proposing authorisation of recycled phosphate products as fertilisers in organic agriculture (under EU Organic Farming Regulation 889/2008). The dossier for struvite was submitted by the UK in 2014 and concerns struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) recovered in sewage works or from animal waste processing. The dossier for calcined phosphates was submitted by Austria in 2011 and concerns recovery from ashes of sewage sludge, meat and bone meal (MBM), or other biomass ash. The committee concludes that for Ostara Pearl struvite (the submitted dossier) there is no hygiene risk (organic pollutants or pathogens), but that this is not proven for other struvite production methods. Struvite recovery is noted to be conform to environmental objectives (reduces N and P losses to surface waters, recycles nutrients, reduces consumption of non-renewable P resources) and concludes that struvite should be authorised for organic farming “provided that the method of production ensures hygienic and pollutant safety”. For calcined phosphates, the committee also concludes that recovery from ashes is conform to environmental objectives (but with some concerns about energy consumption) and that calcined phosphates should be authorised for organic farming subject to being recovered from sewage sludge incineration ash and that heavy metal content should be limited (proposal: chromium(VI) non detectable, other heavy metals “minimised”). However, EGTOP also concludes that these two products cannot be authorised under the Organic Farming Regulation until they are authorised under the EU Fertilisers Regulation, so confirming the importance of the ‘STRUBIAS’ process underway to integrate such products into the current revision of this Regulation.
Expert Group for Technical Advice on Organic Production (EGTOP) “Final Report on Organic Fertilizers And Soil Conditioners (II)”, final version 2 February 2016 http://ec.europa.eu/agriculture/organic/eu-policy/expert-advice/documents/final-reports_en

A meeting was organised by CEN (the European Standardisation Committee) and CENELEC (electrical equipment) on 'Standards for circular economy: waste management and secondary raw materials' in Brussels 8th September. Of around 100 participants, ESPP and the paper industry were maybe the only representatives of the bio-nutrient and bio-materials sector. Yet, the need for standards development to support nutrient recycling and valorisation of bio-waste streams was made clear. Some of the day’s conclusions are strongly applicable to the nutrient circular economy: need to standardise terminology and definitions, including how to measure the recycling rate, importance of public information (e.g. traceability) to develop trust; potential of EN standards to open markets for export; quality standards for input materials, processes and recycled (nutrient) products; benchmarking to indicate for what uses a recycled product is appropriate. The meeting registered that a number of initiatives are underway or expected: EC mandates to CEN for standards development to support the Fertilisers Regulation revision and the EU Circular Economy Package, interface work to identify gaps and incoherence between fertiliser regulations, REACH, waste regulation; BS 8001 proposed standard “Framework for circular economy principles”. This meeting aims to launch a CEN informal process for dialogue on on standards for the circular economy, waste and secondary materials, in which ESPP will actively participate.

Science and media

Integer market research consultants suggest that world phosphate fertiliser prices, which have fallen very low, may stop dropping. The current low price level of DAP and MAP (di- and mono ammonium phosphate) has led to a 30 – 50% reduction in China’s exports and is pressuring even integrated producers’ margins, despite low sulphur and ammonia prices. The consultants suggest that the PotashCorp – Agrium merger announced in North America may push prices upwards. On the other hand, important capacity investments in MENA (Middle East North Africa) soon to come into production will lead to further overcapacity and downwards pressure on prices. ESPP notes that producers of recycled fertilisers in Europe are also facing difficulties, as current low mineral fertiliser prices push down the sale prices of their products.
“What is driving Phosphate markets and have prices stopped falling?” Integer Research 5/9/2016

The EU-funded LIFE+ 5-year MANEV project, bringing together 8 knowledge institutes in Denmark, Spain, Italy and Poland, has published its final report assessing the sustainability of manure management systems in Europe. Livestock in Europe generates 1 400 million tonnes of manure per year, containing 7 million tonnes of nitrogen (N) – compared to some 11 million tonnes N applied in mineral fertilisers. The environmental impact cost of ammonia emissions, greenhouse gases and nitrogen losses to rivers alone is estimated at 12 300 million €/year. Treatment systems assessed are: acidification, solid-liquid separation, anaerobic digestion, aerobic biological treatment, composting, evaporation, thermal drying, ammonia stripping and recovery, filtration / osmosis, phytoepuration and land spreading. The report concludes that the appropriate treatment depends on the local situation. Land spreading is the first option where possible (not local manure surplus), that nutrient removal should not be implemented without recovery and recycling, and that aerobic digestion can support nutrient recovery. Also, it is noted that manure acidification will develop if legislation requires limiting of ammonia emissions, solid-liquid separation is important to facilitate nutrient recovery, further work is needed on the quality of recovered products from ammonia stripping, quality standards are needed to develop a market for composted manure, filtration and osmosis are likely to remain limited because of high cost.
MANEV “Evaluation of manure management and treatment technology for environmental protection and sustainable livestock farming in Europe” (LIFE09 ENV/ES/000453), final report, December 2015, 180 pages www.lifemanev.eu

Vaneeckhaute et al. 2016 summarise the characteristics of digestate are summarised, noting the wide variability, and processing technologies discussed. Most processing starts with solid/liquid separation. A number of nutrient recovery technologies as applicable to digestate are reviewed, looking at technical and economic aspects, and marketability of the end-products as fertilisers: ammonia stripping and adsorption, acidic air scrubbing, membrane filtration, ammonia and phosphorus sorption onto different materials (e.g. natural zeolites), biomass production and harvest, struvite precipitation, calcium phosphate precipitation, phosphorus recovery from ashes/biochar. Ammonia stripping then recovery using acidic air scrubbing and struvite precipitation were identified as the best available technologies. However, ammonia sulphate from the former does not necessarily find a market in liquid form as it is generally produced. Biomass production can be cost effective, but requires a large land footprint. Membrane filtration systems have often suffered technical problems and are not today economically viable for digestate treatment.
Drosg et al. 2015 provide a practical presentation of nutrient recovery from digestates for biogas plant operators and developers, as well as policy makers. The report covers both solid-liquid separation (decanter centrifuge, screw press, belt filters, decantation, flotation and others), processing of the digestate solid and liquid fractions (composting, drying, ammonia stripping, ion exchange, struvite precipitation, membranes, evaporation). A detailed cost analysis for six digestate processing scenarios is provided, concluding that direct land application is most cost effective if locally possible, and optimal processing system is highly site and case specific.
“Nutrient Recovery from Digestate: Systematic Technology Review and Product Classification”, 20 pages, C. Vaneeckhaute et al., Waste and Biomass Valorisation, 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12649-016-9642-x
“Nutrient Recovery by Biogas Digestate Processing”, B. Drosg, IEA Bioenergy ISBN 978-1-910154-15-1, 2015, 40 pages http://www.iea-biogas.net/files/daten-redaktion/download/Technical%20Brochures/NUTRIENT_RECOVERY_RZ_web1.pdf

EFSA (European Food Safety Agency) has published an assessment of urea – safety for users – regarding use under the Plant Protection Products Directive 91/414/EEC. EFSA cite the US EPA conclusions that chromosome aberrations have been noted in some tests and that data does not enable to exclude genotoxicity or carcinogenicity. EFSA notes that data submitted is inadequate to derive acceptable exposure levels for operators (AOEL). Previous EFSA Opinions have concluded that urea is safe for appropriate uses in cosmetics and in ruminant animal feeds.
“Outcome of the consultation with Member States, the applicant and EFSA on the pesticide risk assessment for urea in light of confirmatory data”, EFSA 12 July 2016. “Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of Urea for ruminants”, EFSA-Q-2004-030 2012.

The UK’s Financial Times reports that agriculture is Europe’s biggest contributor to air-pollution related mortality. Based on a Netherlands government funded study (not yet published), the article states that air around “farming hotspots” can be as damaging to health as in a city with traffic. A key problem is indicated to be ammonia, released from manures in livestock production, manure storage and spreading. Ammonia can combine with other atmospheric pollutants to form particles which can damage the lung and the heart. 94% of Europe’s ammonia emissions come from agriculture. A study of 2 500 persons in the Netherlands indicated that people living within “Farming ‘hotspots’ carry air pollution risk, Dutch study finds”, P. Clark, Financial Times, 2 September 2016. Study by Lidwien Smit, Utrecht University, Netherlands.

The average Australian diet includes c. 0.67 kgP/day (1.8g phosphorus per day) but with a phosphorus footprint of 4.9 kgP/year to produce this food. The authors calculate that changing to a vegetarian diet with the same protein content would reduce this P-footprint by -72% whilst the diet P intake (and so P in human excreta entering sewage) would increase by +8%. This assumes the same protein intake in the vegetarian diet, which is probably unrealistic as this would mean replacing a 150g of braised steak by nearly 600g of cooked lentils or beans. Even though some authors recommend a 25% higher protein intake with a vegetarian diet, the Australia average protein intake is around 80% higher than needed for health (world average is one third higher).
“Potential impact of Dietary choices on Phosphorus recycling and Global Phosphorus Footprints: the case of the Average Australian city”, G. Metson1, D. Cordell & B. Ridoutt, Frontiers in Nutrition, Aug. 2016, vol. 3, art. 35 http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2016.00035

The Sierra Club USA magazine highlights ten innovative solutions for food waste. The US is estimated to waste half the food grown, generating 70 million tonnes of food waste per year, containing significant contents of nutrients. Action is however starting in the US, with an official objective announced a year ago to cut food waste by 50% by 2030 and legislation to loosen restrictions and increase tax benefits for restaurants, stores and institutions which donate food. The ten solutions presented by Serra Club support businesses to make food waste minimisation a revenue centre and local government to enable food waste management, provide geolocalisation to bring past-date food to needy charities, ensure marketing of imperfect produce, online exchange of surplus garden fruit and veg, composting of non-edible food waste.
“10 Innovative Solutions to Food Waste” K. O’Reilly, Sierra Magazine, July-August 2016

 
Events
 
 
Copyright © 2016 European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform, All rights reserved.

The European Economic and Social Committee has adopted its ‘Opinion’ on the EU Fertilisers Regulation revision. EESC supports the objective of extending the existing regulation from only mineral fertilisers (at present) to cover organic and waste based fertilisers, subject to ensuring environmental protection, underlining that recycled fertilisers “may in the future constitute an important part of an integrated circular economy” (recalling the EESC Opinion on the Circular Economy jobs and SMEs, 2014). The need to clarify definitions of a “secondary raw material”, waste, by-products, end-of-waste are underlined, pointing to the contradictions in the current text between application to PFCs and CMCs [$4.2 of EESC Opinion]. EESC wants systems of control, labelling (present in the proposed text) and [$1.3] traceability (not present). EESC underlines [$1.9, $4.5] that municipal waste water has potential and value as a raw material for organic fertiliser – whereas this is excluded in the current regulation proposal. EESC also notes [$4.8] the need to exempt from REACH recovered materials beyond compost (EESP comment: e.g. digestate see www.phosphorusplatform.eu/regulatory) .

Opinion of the EESC on the EU Fertilisers Regulation Revision, adopted 13-14 July 2016, refs. NAT/691 – EESC-2016-03054-00-01-AC-TRA (EN) 1/8, rapporteur Cillian Lohan www.eesc.europa.eu/?i=portal.en.nat-opinions.39587

The programme  is now online for the ESPP workshop on “Pharmaceuticals and organic chemicals in sewage biosolids: questions for recycling”, Malmö (near Copenhagen) 27th October 8h00 – 12h00, in cooperation with the Nordic Phosphorus Conference, 27th October (12h00) – 28th 13h30 (same venue).
See for more details and registration here.

ESPP’s 2016 General Assembly will take place Brussels, 1st December 2016 (9h – 17h), looking at phosphorus in industry: sustainability, recycling, new applications and processes, P4 and phosphorus chemicals. Tis is within the EU’s First Raw Materials Week parallel to ESPP’s general Assembly, the thematic meeting will enable industry and stakeholder dialogue on developments such as: new uses and applications for phosphorus in industry and energy, P-recovery from waste streams to industrial chemicals and P4, recycling of phosphorus in industry through other routes (e.g. fire safety chemicals, plastics), reducing environmental impact of P chemistry, challenges and opportunities around medical and industry applications nano forms of phosphates.

The EU’s “Expert Group for Technical Advice on Organic Production” (EGTOP) has published its response to two dossiers proposing authorisation of recycled phosphate products as fertilisers in organic agriculture (under EU Organic Farming Regulation 889/2008). The dossier for struvite was submitted by the UK in 2014 and concerns struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) recovered in sewage works or from animal waste processing. The dossier for calcined phosphates was submitted by Austria in 2011 and concerns recovery from ashes of sewage sludge, meat and bone meal (MBM), or other biomass ash. The committee concludes that for Ostara Pearl struvite (the submitted dossier) there is no hygiene risk (organic pollutants or pathogens), but that this is not proven for other struvite production methods. Struvite recovery is noted to be conform to environmental objectives (reduces N and P losses to surface waters, recycles nutrients, reduces consumption of non-renewable P resources) and concludes that struvite should be authorised for organic farming “provided that the method of production ensures hygienic and pollutant safety”. For calcined phosphates, the committee also concludes that recovery from ashes is conform to environmental objectives (but with some concerns about energy consumption) and that calcined phosphates should be authorised for organic farming subject to being recovered from sewage sludge incineration ash and that heavy metal content should be limited (proposal: chromium(VI) non detectable, other heavy metals “minimised”). However, EGTOP also concludes that these two products cannot be authorised under the Organic Farming Regulation until they are authorised under the EU Fertilisers Regulation, so confirming the importance of the ‘STRUBIAS’ process underway to integrate such products into the current revision of this Regulation.

Expert Group for Technical Advice on Organic Production (EGTOP) “Final Report on Organic Fertilizers And Soil Conditioners (II)”, final version 2 February 2016

A meeting was organised by CEN (the European Standardisation Committee) and CENELEC (electrical equipment) on 'Standards for circular economy: waste management and secondary raw materials' in Brussels 8th September. Of around 100 participants, ESPP and the paper industry were maybe the only representatives of the bio-nutrient and bio-materials sector. Yet, the need for standards development to support nutrient recycling and valorisation of bio-waste streams was made clear. Some of the day’s conclusions are strongly applicable to the nutrient circular economy: need to standardise terminology and definitions, including how to measure the recycling rate, importance of public information (e.g. traceability) to develop trust; potential of EN standards to open markets for export; quality standards for input materials, processes and recycled (nutrient) products; benchmarking to indicate for what uses a recycled product is appropriate. The meeting registered that a number of initiatives are underway or expected: EC mandates to CEN for standards development to support the Fertilisers Regulation revision and the EU Circular Economy Package, interface work to identify gaps and incoherence between fertiliser regulations, REACH, waste regulation; BS 8001 proposed standard “Framework for circular economy principles”. This meeting aims to launch a CEN informal process for dialogue on on standards for the circular economy, waste and secondary materials, in which ESPP will actively participate.

Historical SCOPE newsletters about phosphorus and nutrient management are now online on the ESPP website and can be downloaded here.

With the opening of its « Technophos » Centre of Excellence and Technology in Varna, Bulgaria, the Belgian group EcoPhos consolidates its pioneering role in the area of phosphates and phosphorus recycling. For more details see this information, the website and the live stream of the opening.

Do you have an innovative idea related to manure processing? Join the competition and win the Ivan Tolpe Award. More details and the website.

Phosphates 2017 530 115

13 - 15 March, Tampa, Florida, USA.

The only global event for the fertilizer, industrial and feed phosphate markets. 

http://www.crugroup.com/events/phosphates

Best practice models from the Nordic countries and Europe, challenges of P recovery and recycling, quality standards and developing secondary markets with the Nordic Council of Ministers, the EU Commission, EPAs of the Nordic Countries, companies and local authorities. Oganized by Swedish Waste Management, Norwegian Waste Management and Recycling Association, and DAKOFA Waste and Resource Network Denmark and is supported by the Nordic Council of Ministers in cooperation with the Nordic country national water industry federations.

Programme and registration https://dakofa.com/conference/conference

Facebook https://www.facebook.com/events/1004884832892874

ESPP is organising a workshop on “Pharmaceuticals and organic chemicals in sewage biosolids: questions for recycling”, Malmö (near Copenhagen) 27th October 8h00 – 12h00, in cooperation with the Nordic Phosphorus Conference, 27th October (12h00) – 28th 13h30 (same venue). The workshop will look at which pharmaceuticals and organic consumer chemicals are found in sewage biosolids, at what concentrations, effects of composting, anaerobic digestion, whether there is a risk to health and the environment when treated biosolids are used in agriculture, how levels can be reduced and what further data and research is needed.

See programme for more details. If you are interested in presenting (speaker or poster) please contact with a short summary of your proposed presentation.

Nordic Phosphorus Conference, 27th October (12h00) – 28th 13h30
Programme and registration https://dakofa.com/conference/conference
Facebook https://www.facebook.com/events/1004884832892874

Registration via the Nordic Phosphorus Conference website, or contact ESPP ()
Participation: 75 Euros (free for Nordic Phosphorus Conference participants)

Newsletter about nutrient stewardship - European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform (ESPP).

Please subscribe www.phosphorusplatform.eu/Subscribe 
Link to www.phosphorusplatform.eu/eNews3
Download as PDF

Summary:
ESPP working meeting

Pharmaceuticals in sewage biosolids, 27/10/2016

New ESPP member

Fraunhofer IGB new ESPP member

Success stories

Maabjerg biorefinery

REVAQ sewage certification: biosolids recycling quality

Cooperl Emeraude-Energy launched

PHORWater final conference

Ductor biogas & nutrient recovery from chicken manures

Policy

EU exceeds international ammonia emissions limit

EU EIP Raw Materials publishes first “Raw Materials Scoreboard”

“Soil organic matter matters”

ESPP joins FAO Technical Advisory Group on Nutrient Cycles Accounting

Funding opportunities and calls

Alternative nutrient sources for organic farming

Everglades Foundation US$10M Premoval & recovery prize now open

European Network for Rural Development – resource efficiency

Science and media

UK research shows crop value of digestate and compost

Biowaste collection and recycling could mean 90 000 jobs in Europe

Phosphorus offtake threatens sustainability of grasslands

Where there’s swill there’s a way

Scientists propose fertiliser tax to balance biodiesel environmental impacts

HTC technology update and AVA Cleanphos pilot

EFSA say phosphonate is safe for food contact use

Phosphorus recycling by micro-algae growth

Events


ESPP working meeting

ESPP is organising a workshop on “Pharmaceuticals and organic chemicals in sewage biosolids: questions for recycling”, Malmö (near Copenhagen) 27th October 8h00 – 12h00, in cooperation with the Nordic Phosphorus Conference, 27th October (12h00) – 28th 13h30 (same venue). The workshop will look at which pharmaceuticals and organic consumer chemicals are found in sewage biosolids, at what concentrations, effects of composting, anaerobic digestion, whether there is a risk to health and the environment when treated biosolids are used in agriculture, how levels can be reduced and what further data and research is needed. If you are interested in presenting (speaker or poster) please contact with a short summary of your proposed presentation.
Nordic Phosphorus Conference, 27th October (12h00) – 28th 13h30 https://dakofa.com/conference/conference/ and ESPP pharmaceuticals in sewage biosolids workshop 27th October 8h00 – 12h00

New ESPP member

Fraunhofer IGB develops and optimizes processes and products for the business areas of medicine, pharmacy, chemistry, the environment and energy. One of the key research areas of Fraunhofer IGB is the development and implementation of cost-efficient strategies and technologies for the integrated management of nutrients from wastewater and organic waste. In recent years, innovative technologies have been developed and demonstrated at laboratory, pilot and industrial scale to recover mineral fertilizers and soil improvers from municipal sewage sludge, livestock manure, digestate from biogas plants and food industry residues. This includes the chemical-free process ePHOS® (presented at IFAT 2016) for phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge and BioEcoSIM for manure valorization. Fraunhofer IGB believes that ESPP offers us a great opportunity to connect with new stakeholders, to strengthen existing partnerships, and help us promote sustainable phosphorus management at the European level. http://www.igb.fraunhofer.de

Success stories

Maabjerg biogas plant, near Holstebro, Denmark, treats 725 000 t/y animal manures, food industry byproducts, abattoir wastes, sewage biosolids and industry flotation sludge, producing biogas for electricity production and district heating. The manure, food industry and abattoir materials are treated separately, producing 550 000 t/y of liquid ‘Green Line’ liquid digestate and 40 000 t/y fibres, both of which are recycled as fertilisers. A double piping system enables collection of slurry and distribution of liquid digestate with reduced road transport. The biogas plant is estimated to reduce environmental P and N losses by 300 t/y and to maintain 300 local jobs in farming and food processing.
IEA BioEnergy Task 37 Case Study, Denmark “Maabjerg Biogas Plant: Operation of a very large scale biogas plant in Denmark, June 2014”

Today over 50% of Sweden’s population is connected to REVAQ certified sewage treatment plants, ensuring continuous quality monitoring of incoming wastewater, sludge digestate quality requirements and transparent information about treatment methods and digestate quality, including traceability of biosolids origins and treatment dates. A key driver of the launch of the REVAQ Certification system in 2008 was the objective to ensure recycling of sewage biosolids phosphorus, nitrogen, micronutrients and organic matter back to agriculture, to provide nutrients and improve soil quality. In 2003, REVAQ Certified digestate contained nearly 3 000 t/y of phosphorus, of which nearly 50% was used in agriculture. REVAQ fixes upstream objectives for source reduction of pollutants, for example aiming to reduce cadmium to ≤17 mgCd/kgP by 2025 (see SCOPE Newsletter n°117 cadmium in artists paints). REVAQ is also working with upstream industries to reduce silver, gold, mercury and organic contaminants in sewage.
IEA BioEnergy Task 37 Case Study “REVAQ Certified WWTP”

Farmers’ cooperative Cooperl has announced investment in a 150 000 t/y input biogas plant, Emeraude-Energy, in Lamballe, Northern Brittany, France. The plant will methanise pig manure and slaughterhouse wastes, producing 79 000 MWh/y equivalent methane, which will be injected into the local natural gas distribution network. Around 610 t/y of phosphorus and 500 t/y of nitrogen in the digestates will be recycled in granulated, nutrient-adjusted organic fertiliser products (production capacity 80 000 t/y). Cooperl already produces such organic fertiliser products from treated manure, adapted to different crops and supplied to France’s agricultural regions which need nutrient inputs for crops such as vineyards, sunflowers, colza, maize. Several hundred thousand tonnes of poultry and pig manures are already processed to fertilisers in Brittany, see SCOPE Newsletter n° 111.
Emeraude Bio-Energie http://emeraude-bio-energie.fr/le-projet-emeraude-bio-energie/

The LIFE+ PHORWater project final conference in Madrid, 14th July 2016, presented DAM (Depuración de Aguas del Mediterráneo) success operating a 20 m3/day struvite recovery stirred reactor, designed by LAGEP Lyon, at Calahorra, Rioja, sewage treatment works. The project showed that struvite recovery and nuisance deposit avoidance can be optimised by mixing different sludge/digestate flows, which can also reduce chemical consumption by changing the reactor inflow pH. Field tests of the recovered phosphate are underway on potatoes and wheat in Spain. Bibiana Rodriguez, Magrama (Span Agriculture, Food and Environment Ministry) indicated that to authorise struvite as a fertiliser in Spain, either the EU Fertiliser Regulation revision process could ensure this, or field test data from Spain are needed to show fertiliser efficiency, as well as data showing safety and product analytical methods, in order to enable struvite to obtain end-of-waste status and be listed as an acceptable waste material for use on soils. The ReVaWaste LIFE+ project (Valladolid, Spain was presented (energy, organic carbon and struvite recovery from different organic wastes). The slides of the PHORWater conferences online now include presentations of experience by leading struvite recovery technology suppliers who participated, in addition to PHORWater: NuReSys, Veolia (Struvia), Suez (Phosphogreen), Naskeo and (see Amersfoort LIFE+) Ostara (CrystalGreen). http://phorwater.eu/en/

Ductor Corp., Finland, has announced its first commercial installation in Germany, at Haren (Emsland, Lower Saxony), designed to replace maize silage in biogas production (expensive and competes with food production) by chicken manure, with ammonia removal and recovery (as ammonia or ammonia sulphate). The Ductor fermentation system removes ammonia upstream of the anaerobic digester, so enabling biogas production from high N manures. The Haren unit, realised jointly with Rücken and Partner Group (R&P), is planned to treat 10 000 tonnes/year of chicken manure and recover 350 tN/year. The digestate can be neutralised with potassium hydroxide to produce a P-K fertiliser. Ductor was awarded GCCA (Global Cleantech Cluster Association) Top 10 in 2015. See here to attend the plant inauguration 30th September 2016. www.ductor.com

Policy

In 2014, the EU exceeded for the first time its ammonia emissions (NH3) limit fixed under the Gothenberg Protocol to the UNECE Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Convention (LRTAP). Germany, Finland, Spain and the Netherlands also exceeded their individual ammonia emissions ceilings (by 35%, 14%, 5% and 5%). EU ammonia emissions increased by 0.9% from 2013 to 2014. The European Environment Agency indicates that 94% of EU ammonia emissions come from agriculture. This EU failure to respect its international obligations can be expected to progressively put pressure, via future revisions of the National Emission Ceilings Directive (NEC), to prevent ammonia emissions in manure storage, treatment and spreading, and so provide a driver for nitrogen recovery and recycling.
European Environment Agency (EEA) Technical Report 16/2016 European Union emission inventory report 1990–2014 under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP)

The EU funded EIP Raw Materials (European Innovation Partnership) has published a 108 page “Raw Materials Scoreboard”. Phosphate rock, despite being on the EU Critical Raw Materials list since 2014, is only mentioned five times (plus two mentions to specify that phosphate rock was not covered). Phosphors (as used in lights, LEDs …) are mentioned but these should not be confused, they are based on different metals and not phosphorus. Phosphate rock world production is shown to be 70% concentrated in China, USA and Mongolia (Mongolia produces “phosphor” metals, for phosphate rock it should read: Morocco), which is conform to USGS data, but does not take into account the possibly higher geopolitical concentration of reserves. Phosphate rock is indicated to have only 10-20% “End of Life Recycling Input Rates” EOL-RIR), which is supposed to indicate the percentage of total material input into production coming from recycling. This is misleading: it may be based on the methodology of the Deloitte MSA report published 2/2016 (see SCOPE Newsletter n° 119incorrect and un-useable results”). In reality, nearly 1 800 ktP/y are recycled back to fields as fertiliser from manure, plus around 150 ktP/y from sewage sludge, food wastes and meat and bone meal ash, compared to total net EU consumption (import – export) of around 2 050 ktP/y.
European Innovation Partnership on Raw Materials Raw Materials Scoreboard 2016, ET-02-15-541-EN-N

The European Commission’s EIP-AGRI has published an 8-page brochure promoting soil organic carbon “Soil organic matter matters”. This is published by EIP-AGRI following the Focus Groups on ‘Soil Organic Matter content in Mediterranean regions’ and ‘Soil-borne diseases’. It outlines the importance and long-term benefits of organic matter in soil, including nutrient capacity, water retention and drought resistance, reducing soil erosion, soil biological functionality and carbon capture (greenhouse emission mitigation). Scientific data sources and online toolboxes to help farmers restore soil quality are listed. Field cases cite compost and manure application as important routes for improving soil organic matter. The brochure proposes a number of themes for Operational Groups identified by the two Focus Groups. EIP-AGRI https://ec.europa.eu/eip/agriculture/

The Food and Agricultural Organization (UN FAO) launched a Technical Advisory Group (TAG) on Nutrient Cycles Accounting and Impact Assessment (Nutrient TAG) within the Livestock Environmental Assessment and Performance (LEAP) Partnership. ESPP has been selected as a member. The LEAP Partnership members called for recommendations on nutrient accounting and impact assessment, for inclusion into the LEAP guidelines. The TAG will build a global common ground by technical dialogue between relevant scientific communities, practitioners, and LEAP stakeholders. Guidance from the Nutrient TAG will concern livestock supply chains including feed production from croplands and grasslands, production and processing of livestock products. During the first advisory group meeting held at FAO headquarters in Rome, 12 – 14 July, stakeholders discussed the objectives, frameworks and specific issues related to nutrient flow analysis, impact assessment, life cycle analysis and foot printing. ESPP provided a presentation on the need for better Data on Nutrients to Support Stewardship, based on conclusions of the DONUTSS workshop 201, see slides.
FAO Nutrient TAG http://www.fao.org/partnerships/leap/en

Funding opportunities and calls

Call for Research & Innovation Action to “find alternatives” to contentious input products used in organic farming. Manure from non-organic farming is cited as such an input. Phosphate rock is not cited, but could maybe also be considered. Objectives include accessible and cost-effective alternatives, improved knowledge of their use, enabling enhanced organic farm productivity and reduced environmental impact. Also is currently open a second call for Thematic Networks to disseminate agricultural research results to practitioners.
Horizon 2020 - SFS-08-2017- “Organic inputs – contentious inputs in organic farming”. Deadline (stage 1) 14/2/2017. Budget 8 M€.
Horizon 2020 - RUR-10-2016-2017 – “Thematic Networks compiling knowledge ready for practice”. Deadline 14/2/2017. Budget 10 M€.

The Everglades Foundation George Barley prize (total prizes 11.3 million US$) for solutions to remove nutrients from surface waters is now officially launched, with three cut-off dates for stage 1 submissions (31st August, 31st October and 31st December 2016). Final judging criteria are: land use footprint (impervious and total), cost (investment and operating), phosphorus removal from river waters (final objective: treatment of 0 – 15 million litres/day down to 10 – 15 ppb total P including in cold climates), environmental sustainability (impact on treated water chemistry and biota, waste disposal, value-added or recovered by-products – that is P-recycling), scalability, income from by-products (P-recycling). NOTE: entrants should verify the judging criteria for Stage 1 which are defined differently. Submission for Stage 1 requires answering seven questions online (short paragraphs): summary, total P inflow and outflow concentrations, upscaling, costs and investment potential, innovation and originality, inspiration. The entry must also include “A written report detailing the experiment design and environmental impact assessment” (upload file) – for which the template is available here and must include a instructions). A specific “Phoenix” prize of 170 000 US$ will go to the project showing the best potential for by-products.
George Barley Water Prize and Phoenix Prize, submission deadlines 31st August, 31st October and 31st December 2016 www.barleyprize.com

ENRD (European Network for Rural Development, funded by the European Commission DG Agriculture) is calling for participants for a Thematic Group on “Resource efficient rural economy”. Deadline for candidates 27th August 2016.
Call for candidates https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/TG_Resource-Efficiency Information: www.phosphorusplatform.eu under Downlaods

Science and media

Field tests of 3-5 years at 22 UK locations show that food-waste digestate provides plant-available nitrogen, increasing crop yields and that compost from garden green waste / food waste builds soil organic matter more rapidly than manure. Both products also provide phosphorus, potassium and sulphur to crops. The WRAP “DC-Agri” research summary (Feb. 2016) indicates total nutrients in this digestate as 0.5%N (80% readily available), 0.05%-P2O5 and 0.02%K-K2O. The summary provides analysis of crop yields, crop quality, soil organic matter, soil biology and physical properties, soil contaminants, ammonia emissions, greenhouse gases and leaching of P and N. The report underlines the need to respect good practice in application of all organic recycled nutrient materials (composts, digestates, manures) and indications are provided in the WRAP Guides to Good Practice UK DEFRA (ministry for environment, farming and rural affairs) welcomed the report for sustainable farming and renewable fertiliser “helping farmers to grow crops more smartly and efficiently”.
“Field experiments for quality digestate and compost in agriculture”, DC-AGRI report, Feb. 2016

The European Compost Network (ECN) estimates that the processing to recover energy and materials of Europe’s nearly 100 million tonnes/year of biowastes (40% of total wastes) could generate over 90 000 jobs (of which 70 000 in rural areas). Of these jobs, around one third exist already today, and processing the two-thirds of biowastes which are currently not recycled or used would thus generate 60 000 new full-time employment equivalents: see the ECN infographic July 2016. Further, a study by EUNOMIA in the UK suggests that separate collection of food wastes (which makes up 30% of domestic refuse in the UK) would save 12-25€ per household through reduced refuse collection frequency. Businesses producing 1 tonne of food waste per week could save over 2 200 € per year if mandatory collection were implemented.
“The Real Economic Benefit of Separate Biowaste Collections. A business case” EUNOMIA, Olleco, REA May 2016

Nearly 40% of livestock manure was exported away from the world’s grasslands over 1970 – 2005, removing P and N and threatening grasslands fertility, according to a study published in Nature and based on FAOSTAT data. The world’s grassland area is >3 billion hectares, twice the cropland area. Soil P removed from grassland must be replaced by organic and mineral fertiliser inputs. The authors estimate that to support an 80% increase in grass production, for milk and meat, these inputs will have to increase four-fold from 2005 to 2050. Combined with requirements for cropland, they estimate that mineral P fertiliser use must double by 2050 (to 1 200 million tonnes P). They emphasise that a range of nutrient management strategies will be needed to meet this challenge, including manure reuse, reducing food losses, returning nutrients from other organic wastes to land, balanced P fertilisation as well as mineral fertiliser use.

“Negative global phosphorus budgets challenge sustainable intensification of grasslands”, Sattari et al., Nature Communications 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms10696 Open Access

Food waste is currently banned from use in animal feed in the EU (and in some 18 US states), following the Foot and Mouth Disease outbreak transmitted by illegal feeding of uncooked food waste to UK pigs in 2001 (incident which cost the UK around 10 billion €). Japan and Korea, on the other hand, feed 40% of their food waste to pigs after cooking under specific sanitising conditions (70 or 80°C), as does China. A recent study from Cambridge University UK estimates that similar, safe, food waste recycling in the EU could reduce land use of EU pork production by one fifth, i.e. 8 million hectares (half the area of Switzerland), including saving half a million hectares of Brazil soybean. Swill feeding to pigs is also analysed as reducing other environmental impacts (green house emissions, eutrophication), improving farmers’ profitability and improving pork meat quality.
“Reducing the land use of EU pork production: where there’s swill, there’s a way”, E. zu Ermgassen, B. Phalan, R. Green, A. Balmford, Food Policy 58, 2016, 35-48 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2015.11.001 Open Access

The EU’s ‘Science for Environment Policy’ has published a summary of study by INRA France suggesting that The paper is based on results of monitoring of 600 farms in the Meuse (Northern France) and economic modelling. The price of “fertilisers” is taken as a variable, without distinguishing between phosphorus, nitrogen or other inputs. Demand for fertilisers (in this region) is modelled as expected to increase by 2 – 8% to 2020, driven by increasing prices for colza (rapeseed) resulting from EU biofuels policy. A tax of 50 – 270 €/tonne on fertilisers (not specified which fertilisers) is simulated as appropriate to balance this increase in demand and mitigate possible environmental impacts. The authors note that the French government announced an increase in VAT on fertilisers in 2013, but that this has never been implemented.
“The impact of high crop prices on the use of agro-chemical inputs in France: A structural econometric” Bayramoglu et al., Land Use Policy 55:204-211, 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2016.03.027 and European Commission Science for Environment Policy 15/7/2016 “Fertiliser tax of €0.05–0.27 per kilogram calculated for France as incentive to limit its use”

The EU 7th FP NEWAPP project (New technological applications for wet biomass waste stream products) has published an 80 page report summarising state-of-the-art of HTC (hydrothermal carbonisation) for conversion of wet biomass wastes to quality carbonaceous products which can be used in metal smelting, water and gas purification (pollutant absorption), animal feed additives or soil improvers. Also, the University of Hohenheim, Fraunhofer ISC (Institute of Silicate Research) and AVA-CO2 have started testing in Karlsruhe, Germany, a pilot plant for P-recovery from sewage sludge. The process combines HTC (hydro thermal carbonisation) pyrolysis, producing a coke-type fuel (“HTC-coal”), acid leaching of phosphorus, nano-filtration, membrane filtration and concentration to generate phosphoric aci, calcium phosphate or struvite. The company’s presentation indicates that the phosphorus is not glassified as can be the case in incineration ash so that the acid leaching requires less chemicals and energy, and that most of the heavy metal contaminants remain in the “coal”. AVA’s Karlsruhe demonstration HTC unit has a capacity of 14 000 litres. www.ava-co2.com

EFSA (European Food Safety Agency) has published 13th July an evaluation of the phosphonate [[3,5-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]methyl]phosphonate. This organophosphorus chemical is used as a polymerisation additive in PET plastics (poly(ethyleneterephthalate)). EFSA concludes that it is safe for use in contact with food (FCM = food contact material) in this application. The evaluation indicates that no migration out of the plastic was detectable, that tests show no genotoxicity.
“Phosphorus from wastewater to crops: An alternative path involving microalgae”, Biotechnology Advances 2016

A review paper presents the state-of-the-art and knowledge gaps for the use of waste streams to feed micro-algae production. The algae can then be used either to extract chemical products (e.g. polyphosphates) or bio-fuels, or for use as fertilisers. P-uptake by algal cells is an active transport system, because the negative phosphate ion does not passively cross the lipid cell membrane which has a negatively charged inside surface. Phosphorus intake and storage occurs naturally in algae, e.g. species which vertically migrate in lakes to use the P-rich deeper waters and surface light. Selection of algae to accentuate fast growth and high P storage are discussed. Different growth technologies are presented: open ponds, photo-suspension bioreactors, immobilised micro-algae, thin layer systems. Further research is needed on these areas, and on selection of micro-algae to optimise their value as fertilisers, including interactions with soil micro-biology.
“Phosphorus from wastewater to crops: An alternative path involving microalgae”, Solovchenkoet al., Biotechnology Advances 2016

Events
 
Copyright © 2016 European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform, All rights reserved.

ENRD (European Network for Rural Development, funded by the European Commission DG Agriculture) is calling for participants for a Thematic Group on “Resource efficient rural economy”. Deadline for candidates is 27th August 2016. Registration here. More information here.

The George Barley Water Price launched. Everglades teams with Ontario for 11.2 million US$ nutrient removal and recovery challenge. Opening of the challenge is expected before mid- July with first submission deadline end summer 2016, then several rolling submission deadlines.

The Everglades Foundation Grand Challenge for new approaches to remove recycle phosphorus from dilute waters (rivers, drainage ditches, lakes) has now partnered with the Ontario Ministry of Environment and Climate Change and Xylem, to offer a total of 11.2 million US$ prizes. For more information, see summary of Everglades Grand Challenge in SCOPE Newsletter n°111.

A new website has been launched and submission application documents will be online at the challenge opening, expected early before mid-July. To be informed and pre-register, create your user profile: www.barleyprize.com

“Everglades Foundation Announces The George Barley Science Prize Competition at White House Event Today”
http://www.evergladesfoundation.org/2015/10/07/everglades-foundation-announces-the-george-barley-science-prize-competition-at-white-house-event-today

Summary of the ESPP working meeting on the EU Fertiliser Regulation revision, held Brussels 29 June 2016, can be downloaded here. Presentation by the European Commission and other stakeholders are included as annexes. Background information of the workshop can be found here. See also other inputs of ESPP to the Fertiliser regulation revision process in the Regulatory Activity section.

The ESPP eNews no2 July 2016 can be read here with short communications related to nutrient management.

Newsletter about nutrient stewardship - European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform (ESPP).

Please subscribe www.phosphorusplatform.eu/Subscribe 
Link to www.phosphorusplatform.eu/eNews2
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This is the number 2 edition of ESPP (European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform) monthly News. We hope that you will find this useful. If other people wish to subscribe, it is free at www.phosphorusplatform.eu If you have comments or news on nutrient management to share, please contact

In particular, much is happening in the Nordic countries: see below SyreN success story, manure acidification and Nordic Phosphorus Conference, Malmö / Copenhagen 27-28 October.


For full list of events, see below the news section of this email and on www.phosphorusplatform.eu


New Platform member

New ESPP member ITALPOLLINA SPA, Italy, is a leader in the production of naturally derived fertilizers and specialty plant nutrition products, with 40 years experience. The company’s products are used in organic and conventional agriculture, and include fertilisers based on processed manure, biostimulants of vegetal origin and beneficial microbials. The company sells in more than 70 countries worldwide. Key principles are food and environment safety and optimal fertilisation efficiency, and so yield and quality, based on selection of raw materials, technologically advanced manufacturing processes and stringent internal controls. Luca BONINI, CEO, declares “Joining ESPP is an opportunity for us to develop our technologies, to create partnerships and to sustain the promotion of the recovery nutrients”. Benoît PLANQUES, Regulatory Manager, will follow the activities of ESPP. www.italpollina.com

Success stories BioCover’s SyreN system is an innovative, modular, on-farm system for improved manure management using technologies integrated into farmers’ existing slurry tankers. This reduces costs, enables mobility and makes use of slurry tankers during idle periods. SyreN offers five technologies: (1) manure acidification during application using sulphuric acid, reducing ammonia air emissions by up to 70% (2) dosing of additives to improve manure plant availability, soil properties or reduce odour (3) ammonia and N-stabiliser dosing, so improving N:P ratio and reducing N losses from soil (4) software / mobile phone system to optimise slurry application and (5) phosphorus recovery. The P-recovery module (SyreN+) firstly precipitates phosphate as struvite within the slurry tanker (leaving a low-P slurry liquor, which can be spread), then dissolves the struvite in the tanker using sulphuric acid (using the acidification equipment), giving a marketable and transportable NPS liquid fertiliser. BioCover SyreN has received the Baltic Manure Handling Award 2012, Agromek awards 2010, European Corporate CSR 2013 and US EPA Manure Nutrient Recovery Challenge 2016. BioCover is now looking for project or investor funding to adapt and implement SyreN in other countries, according to farmers’ regional modes of operation and equipment, or to recover the struvite as a solid fertiliser product (SyreN Crustal).
BioCover www.biocover.dk Photo: slurry tanker equipped with SyreN A 5.4 million € EU InterReg project has been launched to roll-out manure slurry acidification in the Baltic States, following on from Denmark’s experience (see SyreN above). The objective is to reduce ammonia emissions to air during slurry application, in order to cut greenhouse gas impacts to eutrophication (atmospheric deposition of N to the Baltic), as well as avoiding loss of valuable nitrogen nutrient for farmers. Over 1 000 famers are already using one or more modules of SyreN technology for acidification during slurry spreading (see above). The InterReg project aims to enhance capacity of public authorities and farmers, through pilot installations, feasibility studies and environmental and economic assessments.
International seminar on slurry acidification to reduce ammonia emissions, 28 - 29 September 2016, Vejle, Denmark (nearby Billund Airport) www.conferencemanager.dk/acidification The KOTO company’s AlgaeBioGas installation, Llubljana, Slovenia, is featured as one of the European Biogas Association (EBA)’s six Success Stories: anaerobic digestion of biodegradeable municipal solid waste in European cities. The 13 000 m3/y feedstock anaerobic digesters, using mainly household food waste and food industry wastes, produce methane used for co-generation (4 GWh/y electricity and 2.8 GWh/y thermal energy). Part of the resulting digestate (0.5 m3/day) is used to feed a pilot-scale open raceway algae pond (30 m2), commissioned in 2014, ensuring biological treatment of the digestate and recycling nutrients into production of algae, which are then used as feedstock for further methane production, or for use in bioplastics or fertiliser production. The system is energy and greenhouse emission efficient, because exhaust gas from the methane-burning electricity co-generation is injected into the algae production pond, so using the waste heat and carbon dioxide in algae production, as well as reducing digestate odor. /www.algaebiogas.eu/


Projects The PHOSave project (Horizon 2020 SME Instrument), led by PROPHOS Chemicals will construct a pilot plant near Cromona, Lombardy, to recover and recycle phosphates from exhausted fire extinguishing powders. Halogenated chemicals in fire extinguishers have been largely replaced by phosphate based dry powders, because phosphate does not pose environmental or health issues and is effective in combating fire. Prophos Chemicals is Italy’s only producer of dry fire extinguisher chemicals of all classes. Fire extinguishers have to be periodically emptied, overhauled, refilled and re-pressurised, to guarantee reliable performance in case of fire. The recovered phosphate will be recycled into the chemical industry or as fertilisers. The Lombardy Region, Italy, has been selected to lead the Vanguard BioEconomy pilot project “Biogas beyond energy” (European Commission, Regional and Urban Policy). The project also involves Brandenburg (Germany), Baden-Württenberg (Germany), North-Rhein Westfalia (Germany), Navarra (Spain), Asturias (Spain), Skåne (Sweden), Emilia Romagna (Italy), Malopolska (Poland), and West Finland. The product will develop valorisation of different sources of organic raw materials as biogas plant inputs, in particular livestock manure, and transformation into value-added products including fuels, chemicals, energy and recycled nutrients. Lombardy Region press release 21/6/16

Media and meetings The new water sector publication Aqua Strategy, launched February this year, has published its third issue largely devoted to phosphate recovery and recycling from sewage. ESPP point to the Circular Economy as the key driver today for phosphorus stewardship, with aspects both of reducing European dependence on imports from a few regions, and opportunities for revival of rural areas and decentralised job creation. The EU Fertilisers Regulation revision is a key step forward, but the current proposals exclude the use of sewage-derived recycled nutrients. However, Member States will be able to authorise “national” fertilisers which are sewage biosolids based, such as the existing France compost standard. Ostara struvite recovery is presented as a success story, with now ACWA as technology licensee in the UK. Leon Korving, WETSUS, summarises new R&D challenges for phosphate recovery, in particular how to recover phosphorus from iron containing biosolids. AquaStrategy June 2016. "Releasing forms of P that other forums can't reach!” is the slogan of the https://soilpforum.com/ provides online information on publications, events, research projects concerning organic phosphorus in soil, fertilisers and soil phosphorus. The site includes an active discussion and exchange forum, information on phosphorus analysis methods. @SoilPforum SusChem is the European Technology Platform for Sustainable Chemistry (created by between Cefic, DECHEMA, EuropaBio, GDCh, ESAB and RSC). SusChem’s Strategic Innovation and Research Agenda (1/3/2015) refers to phosphorus under $1.1 access to critical raw materials and 2.1 sustainable agriculture “There is a need for new and improved technologies for recovering and recycling these essential biological elements: phosphorus … nitrogen and potassium”. SusChem’s five priority factsheets state (under priority: water): “Resource recovery (“circular economy”), development of novel highly selective and energy-efficient separation technologies to recover specific resources (e.g. phosphorous) from industry wastewater”. SusChem is organising a project brokerage event, Seville, 13th September.
SusChem brokerage event 13/9/2016 Seville Jean-François Soussana, GIEC scientist and Scientific Director of INRA, opened the UNIFA (French fertiliser industry association) public workshop on the Circular Economy, Paris, 24th June. He explained that agriculture is a major contributor to global greenhouse emissions, with global emissions increasing despite reductions in emissions/kg production. But a 0.4%/year increase in world topsoil carbon stocks would compensate fossil fuel emissions. 0.2 kg N and 0.08 kg P are needed to stock 1 kg carbon. Challenges are measuring C effectively sequestered, and ensuring that C stays in soil. Australia pays farmers 11$/tonne-CO2 stored in soil. Chris Thornton, ESPP (European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform) emphasised the business opportunities of phosphorus stewardship, synergies with organic carbon circular economy and current progress on EU legislation. Didier Marteau, farmer and Aude county Chamber of Agriculture underlined the need for traceability of input materials in recycled nutrient and organic carbon products and the advantages of developing methanisation. Gilles Poidevin, UNIFA, concluded with the importance of different sectors working together to develop the bio circular economy and to enable synergies between soil carbon, soil fertility and farm economic productivity.
UNIFA www.unifa.org and ESPP presentation slides (in French)

Science and News The European Court has fined Portugal 3 million Euros, plus 8 000 €/day for failing to implement the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive. The Directive required that all agglomerations of > 15 000 p.e. should have sewage collection and treatment by 2000. In 2009, the European Court identified 22 agglomerations not compliant. The new Court judgement concerns two agglomerations were still not compliant in 2014, with one now completed and one not planned for completion until 2019, nearly twenty years after the Directive deadline.
European Court of Justice press release 22/6/2016, judgement Case C-557/14 Phosphorus in municipal wastewater in China represents c. 5.5% of mineral fertiliser consumption. Data is presented on the number of operating sewage works in China, showing a doubling in capacity since 2005, and on the process treatments installed. Data on sludge treatment and disposal is not available, but estimates suggest that anaerobic digestion is not widely implemented and that 84% of sludge is no correctly managed. This study concludes that digestion then appropriate land application will be the main route for P-recycling, but with a need for strict control of land application to ensure biosolids quality and to avoid runoff and pollution. Struvite recovery is expected to develop in biological P-removal wastewater treatment plants. Proposed policies include: improving wastewater collection and P-removal, promoting anaerobic digestion and biological P-removal, developing legal and business framework.
“Phosphorus recovery from municipal and fertilizer wastewater: China's potential and perspective”, J. Environ. Sci. (2016), K. Zhou , M. Barjenbruch, C. Kabbe, G. Inial, C. Remy http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2016.04.010 Phosphorus cycling in China over the last 4 centuries is studied, showing considerable increases in phosphorus use and high inefficiencies. Phosphorus in annual arable crop output increased from c. 0.4 million tonnes P/year (MtP) in the 1600’s to 3.3 MtP in 2012. Average input to crop production is today estimated at 80 kgP/ha, more than twice crop uptake capacity 85% of this excess phosphorus input is estimated to be immobilised in soil as “legacy P”. Phosphorus losses to China’s surface waters have increased threefold, with freshwater aquaculture the largest source of phosphorus losses (90% of fish-feed P lost to water). However, only c. 20% of the total P lost to rivers reaches the ocean, as most is retained in inland and coastal sediments due to relatively flat terrain and dams. China’s dietary P intake is estimated to be 30% lower than for the USA, but nonetheless higher than the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA). The authors estimated that improved management of P in China (better use, recycling) could prolong the lifetime of China’s phosphate rock reserves by 20 years.
“Intensification of phosphorus cycling in China since the 1600s”, X. Liu, H. Sheng, S. Jiang, Z. Yuan, C. Zhang, J. Elser, PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA), vol. 113, n° 10, 2016 A combination of P-recycling from meat and bone meal, sewage sludge and compost could replace 70% of mineral phosphate fertiliser use in Austria. The study is based on a detailed 2013 national phosphorus flow analysis. An optimal strategy would reduce import dependency by nearly 90%, reduce losses to water bodies by nearly 30% and nearly avoid consumption of mineral P fertilisers. This optimal scenario includes recycling, reduction of meat consumption, improved crop P-efficiency, optimisation in other applications (gardens, industry), reduction of point source emissions and soil erosion.
“Supporting phosphorus management in Austria: Potential, priorities and limitations”, O. Zoboli, M. Zessner, H. Rechberger, Science of the Total Environment 565(2016) 313-323 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.04.171

50% P-recovery from Germany’s sewage biosolids is feasible

Scenarios are proposed to recover 50% of total phosphorus in Germany’s sewage sludge biosolids. Economic and environmental impacts are assessed. Of c. 60 000 tP/year in German sewage sludge, around 25-30% are currently used in agriculture and this should remain an important part of nutrient recycling for high-quality biosolids. To efficiently recover P from the remaining sludge will require modification of logistics in sludge treatment, to ensure that sewage sludge goes to mono-incineration and is not mixed with low phosphorus wastes, in order to deliver sewage sludge incineration ash with a P content of around 8%. Technical processes are available to recover P from such ash. A scenario with 30% recovery of Germany’s sewage biosolids P by technical processes from ash, and 20% continuing to be used in agriculture, resulting in a net positive impact for energy consumption and climate change emissions. “Phosphorrecycling aus Klärschlamm in Deutschland: eine Abschätzung von Kosten und Umweltauswirkungen” (Phosphorus recycling from sewage sludge in Germany : an estimate of costs and environmental impacts), F. Kraus, C. Kabbe, C. Remy, B. Lesjean, 10 pages (in German), Korrespondenz Abwasser, Abfall 2016 (63) Nr. 6 http://dx.doi.org/10.3242/kae2016.06.004
 
Events

Full events listing online at:
http://www.phosphorusplatform.eu/events/upcoming-events
To add your event, please contact
 
Copyright © 2016 European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform, All rights reserved.

The ESPP eNews no1 June 2016 can be read here with short communications related to nutrient management.

Newsletter about nutrient stewardship - European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform (ESPP).

Please subscribe www.phosphorusplatform.eu/Subscribe 
Link to www.phosphorusplatform.eu/eNews1
Download as PDF


ESPP (European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform) is launching a new monthly News, to provide regular updates on nutrient management success stories, regulatory developments, science and reports.

This will be in addition to the SCOPE Newsletter, which will provide, as to date, in-depth coverage of science publications, conferences and regulation.

This is the "Beta" first edition of this monthly News, pending finding a more attractive and readable layout. It is sent initially to all SCOPE Newsletter subscribers. We hope that you will find this useful. If other people wish to subscribe, it is free at
www.phosphorusplatform.eu If you have comments or news on nutrient management to share, please contact

For list of events, see below the news section of this email. Next ESPP meeting: EU Fertiliser Regulation workshop 29th June Brussels: Discussion of proposed Regulation text, application to recovered nutrient products, composts, digestates.

On 17th June, Ostara and Vallei Veluwe water board officially inaugurated the 900 tonnes/year Pearl struvite recovery unit at Amersfoort sewage works, treating sewage from 300 000 population equivalent and sewage sludge from 1 million. With EU LIFE supportOn 17th June, Ostara and Vallei Veluwe water board officially inaugurated the 900 tonnes/year Pearl struvite recovery unit at Amersfoort sewage works, treating sewage from 300 000 population equivalent and sewage sludge from 1 million. With EU LIFE support, the water and sewage treatment plant is energy neutral, and uses thermal hydrolysis (ELIQUO) and WASSTRIP to increase soluble phosphorus release. Objective is to recover 40% of works input P as struvite. Robert F. Kennedy Jr. inaugurated the Ostara unit, noting that the company will have units operating in 14 sewage works worldwide by end 2016. The recovered struvite is sold by Ostara as Crystal Green performance fertiliser prills, with granulometry size grades, hardness, low-dusting and salt index conform to fertiliser industry SGN specifications.

The European Commission’s JRC (Joint Research Centre) has launched the official process, mandated by DG GROW, to prepare EU “fertiliser criteria” for struvite, ash-based materials and biochars. A first meeting of the group (“STRUBIAS”) of around 30 experts selected by the Commission to advise this criteria process will take place 5-6 July. ESPP, DPP and Fertilisers Europe are designated to this expert group. The criteria elaborated by JRC will then be submitted to the European Commission for addition as an annex to the revised EU Fertiliser Regulation (once this has been adopted and promulgated). These annexes will be integrated into the Regulation by European Commission without requirement to consult European Council or Parliament. Contact to input.
EU Fertilisers Regulation proposed revised regulation summary in SCOPE Newsletter n° 120 - EU publication of comments received by deadline of 12th May 2016: ESPP comments 12th May 2016 - ESPP input to struvite, ash and biochar EU fertiliser criteria definition

A draft Bill submitted to the US Congress proposes a 30% investment tax credit (ITC) for biogas production and for manure nutrient recovery installations. The bill would also open to new Clean Energy Bonds. The bill would open ITCs for biogas production which do not generate electricity (e.g. for production of natural gas energy) and would facilitate funding, and so implementation, of nutrient recovery on farms.
US Congress proposed Bill H. R. 5489 “ To amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to make qualified biogas property and qualified manure resource recovery property eligible for the energy credit and to permit new clean renewable energy bonds”
“Biogas Industry Applauds Agriculture Environmental Stewardship Act”, 16th June 2016

EU Commission public consultation open to 28th August 2016 on Horizon 2020 (R&D funding) 2018-2020 on food security, sustainable agriculture, forestry, water and bio-economy (Societal Challenge 2). This is open to individual citizens and all organisations. Online is a 9-page scene setter text and a simple questionnaire. The scene setter outlines the Horizon 2020 priorities which govern this 2018-2020 Work Programme (including sustainable food security – resilient and resource efficient value chains, rural renaissance – innovation and business opportunities and biobased innovation: all of which are very relevant for nutrient use optimisation and phosphorus recycling. Open questions ask to indicate key challenges, desired outputs and impacts, innovation needs, science and social gaps, game changers – accelerators and horizontal issues (social, sustainability).
European Commission Research & Innovation “Public consultation on Horizon 2020 ‘Food Security, sustainable agriculture and forestry, marine and maritime and inland water research and the bioeconomy’ Work Programme 2018-2020”, open to 28/8/2016

EU Commission call open to 15th September 2016, first phase Expressions of Interest. Innovation Deals are a new EU concept, based on the Netherlands “Green Deals” (see example of North Sea Resources Roundabout in SCOPE Newsletter N° 120). The aim of an Innovation Deals is “in-depth understanding and clarification of how an EU rule or regulation applies. If a rule or regulation is confirmed as an obstacle to innovations … the Deal will make it visible and feed into possible further action”. The Deals “will allow innovators to swiftly address legislative obstacles, shortening the time … to market uptake”. The Deals take the form of voluntary cooperation between the EU, innovators, and national, regional and local authorities and are without EU funding. Five Deals will be selected from this call for Expressions of Interest, plus up to ten via Horizon 2020 circular economy calls CIRC-01 and CIRC-02. A simple application form (20 line description of proposal) and proposal template are available online.
European Commission (DG Research & Innovation) “Innovation Deals for a Circular Economy. Pilot phase within the scope of the Circular Economy” call open to 15/9/16. application form - 1-page presentation template - selection criteria

Following the proposal submitted by ESPP and 60+ organisations across Europe (SCOPE Newsletter n° 114) to launch, the EU’s EIP-Agri Innovation Partnership has selected the theme Recycled Nutrients for its 19th Focus Group. The first meeting took place 31st May – 1st June. The 20 selected experts include ESPP. Expected outputs of the Focus Groups are “mini-papers” (to be written by the expert group and published by EIP-Agri), proposals for EIP-Agri Operational Groups, which will summarise issues and identify R&D needs (possible input to Horizon 2020) and of dissemination needs and other actions. Possible mini-papers suggested to date cover themes such as: quality and monitoring standards for recycled nutrient products, logistics and flows, end-user requirements (farmers, food industry), P-recovery technologies, regulations, on farm nutrient management tools and practice, soil organic matter, nutrient use efficiency, LCA and environmental impacts of nutrient recycling. Contact for further information or to input.

The United Nations FAO (Food and Agricultural Organisation) LEAP (Livestock Environmental Assessment and Performance) Partnership has selected 31 world-level experts for its “Nutrient cycles accounting and Impact assessment Technical Advisory Group” (TAG), including ESPP’s Kimo Van Dijk. The TAG aims to define nutrient assessment and accounting frameworks for benchmarking environmental performance of livestock production, feeding and processing chains, methods for accounting soil nutrients stock changes, for emissions and for life cycle analysis, proposing indicators to assess phosphorus as critical resource. The first FAO Nutrient TAG meeting will take place in July. Contact to input.

Monopotassium phosphate MKP solution was tested as a fungicide in vitro on apple scab Venturia inaequalis (conidia germination, germ tube elongation) and in the orchard. MKP showed to be relatively ineffective (c. 20% effectiveness), compared to boric acid or commercial fungicide. Previous literature has however shown that MKP can be an effective fungicide against powdery mildew on rose or pepper. None of the treatments had adverse impacts on leaves or fruit.
“Efficacy of Boric Acid, Monopotassium Phosphate and Sodium Metabisulfite on the Control of Apple Scab”, Journal of Phytopathology 2016, A. Arslan

A 37 day study of 16 early-lactating cows shows that treatment of feed concentrates with lactic acid can improve efficiency of animal feed phosphate use. 5% lactic acid treatment of feed concentrates resulted in the same metabolic and energy efficiency (lower food intake, maintained body weight and milk yield) as 0.8% calcium monophosphate. The authors conclude that the lactic acid feed treatment improves energy and mineral status and can thus reduce feed phosphate requirements, in lactating cows fed high levels of concentrates (47% in this study). There are possible concerns of rumen acidosis, identified in this study but without adverse physiological or performance effects.
“Metabolic responses, performance, and reticuloruminal pH of early-lactating cows fed concentrates treated with lactic acid, with or without inorganic phosphorus supplementation”, A. Khol-Parisini, E. Humer, H. Harder, E. Mickdam, Q. Zebeli, J. Dairy Sci. 99:1–14, 2016

France’s national radio, France Info, criticises the failure to act on agricultural nutrients emissions which continue to cause algal blooms on Brittany’s beaches. The 2-minute report and online article “Green Algae in Brittany: Inconvenient Truths” accuses the State and the Brittany Region of covering up health impacts, removing funding from independent scientific investigation and using funding intended to reduce nutrient emissions to subsides increasing the size of pig farms.
“Algues vertes en Bretagne : des vérités qui dérangent”, Inès Léraud, France Info, 2 minutes plus online article

A report by Wageningen UR for the Netherlands Ministry for Economics gives data for urban P-flows, information on recent P-recycling development and future perspectives. Only 12% of P in urban waste and wastewater is recycled, mainly from industrial wastewater (2 300 tP/y), particularly food industry sludge. P-recovery in sewage works is developing with struvite recovery, but quantities today are small. A significant increase in P-recover from waste water will result from the SNB – HVC – EcoPhos contract which will concern half of Netherlands sewage sludge from 2018. Today, 2 400 tP/y are lost to surface waters in wwtp discharges. Perspectives discussed include reducing food waste, installing kitchen sink grinders to send food waste to sewage works, source separation of urine in several projects, reducing wwtp discharge concentrations, separating storm waters from wwtp input and incinerating meat and bone meal ash in processing routes where P-recovery is possible.
“Phosphorus recycling from the waste sector”, PRI Report 641, Wagening UR, 2016, F. de Ruijter, W. van Dij,, J. van Middelkoop, H. van Reuter

The Järki project, Finland, has published an assessment of nutrient use in agriculture, recycling potential and markets and of relevant regulation, covering the EU level and seven country cases (Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Denmark, Sweden and Finland). The report notes major regional differences in nutrient flows across Europe, and also that EU legislation is implemented differently between Member States and national regulations are also different: e.g. Nitrates Directive, fertiliser spreading, manure processing, livestock production BAT, sewage sludge regulation, national fertiliser regulations, National Ceiling Emissions Directive for ammonia ….
“Twists in Nutrient Recycling”, L. Hari, K. Riiko, BSAG and Nature and Game Management Trust Finland. English summary 11 pages Full report in Finnish 60 pages

US study shows that nutrients will be a limiting factor for algae biofuel production, unless they are recycled in the process and also recycled nutrients are used as input. The US EISA (Energy Independence and Security Act 2007) targets for biofuel production are considered, assuming a 19 billion litres/year target for algae-based biofuels, based on Chlorella and Nanochloropsis. Catalytic hydrothermal gasification (producing methane and hydrogen from algae) offers the highest potential for nutrient recycling in the biofuel production process. Secondary sources of nutrients are estimated to be sufficient to supply the “new” nutrient input necessary, beyond in-process recycling.
“Implications of widespread algal biofuels production on macronutrient fertilizer supplies: Nutrient demand and evaluation of potential alternate nutrient sources”, C. Canter, P. Blowers, R. Handler, D. Shonnard, Applied Energy 143 (2015) 71–80

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